Epstein-Barr virus related lymphoproliferative disorders are a rare but potentially fatal complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation with an incidence of 1-3% and occurring within 6 months after transplantation. The most relevant risk factors include the use of in vivo T-cell depletion with antithymocyte globulin, HLA disparities between donor and recipient, donor type, splenectomy etc. The higher the numbers of risk factors the higher the risk of developing Epstein-Barr virus related lymphoproliferative disorders. Monitoring EBV viremia after transplantation is of value and it should be applied to high risk patients since it allows pre-emptive therapy initiation at specified threshold values and early treatment. This strategy might reduce mortality which was >80% prior to the implementation of anti-EBV therapy . Treatment of EBV-LPD after allogeneic SCT may consist of anti-B-cell therapy (rituximab), adoptive T-cell immunotherapy or both. Rituximab treatment should be considered the first treatment option, preferably guided by intensive monitoring of EBV DNA while reduction of immunosuppression should be carefully evaluated for the risk of graft versus host disease.