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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Minimal residual disease, Philadelphia negative
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is curable in about 40-50% of adult patients, however this is subject to ample variations owing to several host- and disease-related prognostic characteristics. Currently, the study of minimal residual disease (MRD) following induction and early consolidation therapy stands out as the most sensitive individual prognostic marker to define the risk of relapse following the achievement of remission, and ultimately that of treatment failure or success. Because substantial therapeutic advancement is now being achieved using intensified pediatric-type regimens, MRD analysis is especially useful to orientate stem cell transplantation choices. These strategic innovations are progressively leading to greater than 50% cure rates.