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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation
Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous disease, due to the expression of different biological and clinical risk factors, for which allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) is an effective consolidation therapy. The non-relapse mortality of alloHSCT remains significantly higher compared with that of conventional chemotherapy; therefore, one of the main challenges in the care of ALL is to establish a more precise prognostic definition to select patients who could take advantage from an alloHSCT. Currently, the use of minimal residual disease following induction and early consolidation therapy has improved the prognostic accuracy in defining ALL risk class. In Philadelphia-positive ALL, the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors pre and post alloHSCT appears to improve outcomes significantly and, in the absence of specifically designed clinical trials, alloHSCT remains the most effective post- remission therapy. Nowadays, alloHSCT can be performed according to different modalities encompassing the use of different conditioning regimens, as well as different donors and stem cell source, with a significant accessibility to transplant.