Main Article Content
Background: Transfusion transmitted malaria is undoubtedly a potential health hazard for blood recipients. Egypt is still on the prevention of reintroduction phase of malaria control program. Fayoum Governorate is considered one of the high risk foci due to its geology in Egypt, however no studies have been reported to evaluate the current status of subclinical Plasmodium infection based on sensitive molecular techniques. Moreover, screening of malaria is not listed within screening protocols of blood-borne pathogens in Fayoum blood banks. Objective: To assess the current prevalence of subclinical Plasmodium infection among blood donors of Fayoum inhabitants for transfusion biosafety. To predict if there is any possibility of reemergence of malaria in the governorate and effectiveness of malaria control measures. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted on 400 apparently healthy blood-donors in blood transfusion center of Fayoum University hospital from Jun 2012 to Jan 2013. Conventional PCR was used to detect the 18 S ssrRNA Plasmodium gene. Results: All Fayoum inhabitants’ blood donors’ samples were negative for Plasmodium infection. Conclusions: Current applied control and preventive measures are effective in the context of blood transfusion biosafety in Fayoum blood banks and, therefore, the implementation of a routine malaria screening test in Fayoum blood banks is not merited at this time. In light of our study, we can assume that malaria has been successfully eliminated, at present, from Fayoum Governorate. However further comprehensive study is recommended to screen and stratify the results according to age, substantiate the assume eradication of the infection. Regular monitoring is still needed.
Keywords: Malaria, Fayoum, Transfusion biosafety, Plasmodium.
Downloads month by month
1. WHO. Africa Malaria Report 2003. Geneva (Switzerland): World Health Organization, 2004. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/67869/1/WHO_CDS_MAL_2003.1093.pdf
2. WHO- EMRO. Vector- borne diseases. Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office: World Health Organization, 2016. http://www.emro.who.int/egy/programmes/neglected-tropical-diseases.html
3. Noubouossie D, Tagny CT, Same‐Ekobo A, Mbanya D. Asymptomatic carriage of malaria parasites in blood donors in Yaoundé. Transfusion Medicine. 2012 Feb 1;22(1):63-7. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3148.2011.01121.x/abstract
4. WHO. World Malaria Report 2016. Geneva (Switzerland): World Health Organization, 2016. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/
5. Lalremruata A, Ball M, Bianucci R, Welte B, Nerlich AG, Kun JF, Pusch CM. Molecular identification of falciparum malaria and human tuberculosis co-infections in mummies from the Fayum depression (Lower Egypt). PloS one. 2013 Apr 2;8(4):e60307.
6. WHO-Global Malaria Programme. World Malaria Report 2012, Geneva (Switzerland): World Health Organization, 2012. http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/.
7. Hassan A.N., Kenawy M.A., Kamal H., Abdel Sattar A. A., and Sowilem M.M. GIS-based prediction of malaria risk in Egypt, Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 2003; 9: 548-558. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/119307/1/9_4_2003_548_558.pdf
8. Kamel MM, Attia SS, Emam GD, Al Sherbiny NA. The Validity of Rapid Malaria Test and Microscopy in Detecting Malaria in a Preelimination Region of Egypt. Scientifica. 2016 Mar 21; 2016. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4819100/
9. Lotfy WM. Climate change and epidemiology of human parasitosis in Egypt: A review. Journal of advanced research. 2014 Nov 30;5(6):607-13. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S209012321300088X
10. Kenawy MA. Anopheles sergentii (Diptera: Culicidae): seasonal variation in the development rates of immatures from El Faiyum and Siwa Oasis, Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 1995;25:257–68. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7602168
11. Morsy TA, El Kadry AA, Salama MMI, Sabry AA, El Sharkawy IMA. Studies on bionomics and vector competence of adult anopheline mosquitoes in El Faiyum Governorate, Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol 1995;25 213–44. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7602165
12. Fuller DO, Parenti MS, Hassan AN, Beier JC. Linking land cover and species distribution models to project potential ranges of malaria vectors: an example using Anopheles arabiensis in Sudan and Upper Egypt. Malaria journal. 2012 Aug 6;11(1):1. https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2875-11-264
13. Zaher T., Ahmadi M., Ibrahim A., El-Bahnasawy M., Gouda H., and Shahat S.A., 2007, Malaria in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Yemen: a clinical pilot study, Journal of the EgyptianSociety of Parasitology , 37: 969-976. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18383796
14. El-Bahnasawy MM, Saleh NM, Khalil MF, Morsy TA. The impact of three anopheline mosquito species in Toshka, on the introduction of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum to Egypt. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2011 Dec;41(3):573-92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22435151
15. WHO. Egypt: vector-borne diseases, Geneva (Switzerland): World Health Organization, 2014. http://www.emro.who.int/egy/programmes/neglected-tropical-diseases.html
16. Kenawy MA. Review of Anopheles Mosquitoes and Malaria in Ancient and Modern Egypt. Journal of Mosquito Research. 2015 Feb 15;5(4). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275024309_Review_of_Anopheles_Mosquitoes_and_Malaria_in_Ancient_and_Modern_Egypt
17. Dahesh SM, Bassiouny HK, El-Masry SA. Malariometric parasitological survey in El-Fayoum Governorate, Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2009 Apr;39(1):213-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19530623
18. Kazemi B, Najari M, Saneimoghaddam E, Bandehpour M, Seyed N. Detection of Plasmodium parasites in healthy blood donors using polymerase chain reaction. Archives of Iranian Medicine. 2005 Apr 1;8(2):135-8. http://razi.ams.ac.ir/AIM/0582/0014.pdf
19. Maselli LM, Levy D, Laporta GZ, Monteiro AM, Fukuya LA, Ferreira-da-Cruz MF, Daniel-Ribeiro CT, Dorlhiac-Llacer PE, Sallum MA, Bydlowski SP. Detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax subclinical infection in non-endemic region: implications for blood transfusion and malaria epidemiology. Malaria journal. 2014 Jun 6;13(1):1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24906577
20. Abdullah. Malaria in Egypt:a perplexing behavior with no successful surveillance. Infectious diseases. 2015. https://samyabdallah.wordpress.com/2015/05/17/malaria-in-egypt-a-perplexing-behavior-with-no-successful-surveillance/
21. Gelaw B, Mengitsu Y. The prevalence of HBV, HCV and malaria parasites among blood donor in Amhara and Tigray regional states. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 2008;22(1):3-7. http://www.ejhd.org/index.php/ejhd/article/view/463
22. Bharti AR, Letendre SL, Patra KP, Vinetz JM, Smith DM. Malaria Diagnosis by a Polymerase Chain Reaction–Based Assay Using a Pooling Strategy. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 2009 Nov 1;81(5):754-7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2770880/
23. Poon LL, Wong BW, Ma EH, Chan KH, Chow LM, Abeyewickreme W, Tangpukdee N, Yuen KY, Guan Y, Looareesuwan S, Peiris JM. Sensitive and inexpensive molecular test for falciparum malaria: detecting Plasmodium falciparum DNA directly from heat-treated blood by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Clinical chemistry. 2006 Feb 1;52(2):303-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16339303
24. Doni NY, Zeyrek FY, Seyrek A. Detection of Plasmodium using filter paper and nested PCR for patients with malaria in Sanliurfa, in Turkey. Malaria journal. 2016 May 28;15(1):1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4884379/
25. Gal S, Fidler C, Turner SU, LO YD, Roberts DJ, Wainscoat JS. Detection of Plasmodium falciparum DNA in plasma. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001 Sep 1;945(1):234-8. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb03891.x/full
26. El-Bahnasawy MM, Dabbous H, Morsy TA. Imported malaria as a threat to Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2010 Dec;40(3):773-88. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21268544
27. Hsiang MS, Lin M, Dokomajilar C, Kemere J, Pilcher CD, Dorsey G, Greenhouse B. PCR-based pooling of dried blood spots for detection of malaria parasites: optimization and application to a cohort of Ugandan children. Journal of clinical microbiology. 2010 Oct 1;48(10):3539-43. http://jcm.asm.org/content/48/10/3539.long
28. Taylor, S. M., J. J. Juliano, P. A. Trottman, Griffin, S. H. Landis, P. Kitsa, A. K. Tshefu, and S. R. Meshnick. High-throughput pooling and real-time PCR-based strategy for malaria detection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2010; 48: 512–519. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19940051
29. Matangila JR, Lufuluabo J, Ibalanky AL, da Luz RA, Lutumba P, Van Geertruyden JP. Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection is associated with anaemia in pregnancy and can be more cost-effectively detected by rapid diagnostic test than by microscopy in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Malaria journal. 2014 Apr 2;13(1):1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24690179
30. Eissa SA, Abdel Meguid LM, Ebeid SM, Abou Elfetouh RM, Abdel Moneim GM. National Cancer Institute experience in healthy Egyptian blood donors as regards blood group frequencies and seroprevalence of hepatitis b virus, hepatitis C Virus & HIV: 10 year evaluation. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst. 2007 Mar;19(1):71-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18839037
31. Nada HA, Atwa M (2013) Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV and Syphilis Markers among Blood Donors at Suez Canal University Hospital Blood Bank. J Blood Disord Transfus 5:177. doi: 10.4172/2155-9864.1000177.
32. Arthur RR, Hassan NF, Abdallah MY, El-Sharkawy MS, Saad MD, Hackbart BG, Imam IZ. Hepatitis C antibody prevalence in blood donors in different governorates in Egypt. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1997 Jun 1;91(3):271-4. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0035920397900705