1 Pediatric Clinic, Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.
2 Respiratory Unit, Academic Department of Pediatrics, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.
3 Hematology, Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.
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hypereosinophilia (HE) in children is rare, and its etiological
diagnosis is challenging. We describe a case of a 30-month-old boy,
living in a rural area, who was admitted to our Clinic with a 7-day
history of fever and severe hypereosinophilia. A comprehensive
diagnostic workup could not identify the cause of this condition. On
day 6, the rapidly increasing eosinophil count (maximum value of
56,000/mm3), the risk of developing
hypereosinophilic syndrome, and the patient’s history prompted us to
undertake an empiric treatment with albendazole. The eosinophil count
progressively decreased following treatment. On day 13, clinical
condition and hematological data were satisfactory, therefore the
treatment was discontinued, and the patient was discharged. Three
months later, anti-nematode IgG antibodies were detected in patient
serum, thus establishing the etiological diagnosis. In conclusion, an
empiric anthelmintic treatment seems to be justified when parasitic
hypereosinophilia is strongly suspected, and other causes have been
|Figure 1. Blood eosinophil count changes with albendazole treatment. Black and white arrows indicate initiation and end of treatment, respectively.|