IMPACT OF MULTIPLEX PCR IN REDUCING THE RISK OF RESIDUAL TRANSFUSION-TRANSMITTED HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY AND HEPATITIS B AND C VIRUSES IN BURKINA FASO

Main Article Content

Arzouma Paul YOODA
Serge Theophile SOUBEIGA
Kompingnin Yacouba NEBIE
Birama DIARRA
Salam SAWADOGO
Abdoul Karim OUATTARA *
Dorcas OBIRI-YEBOAH
Albert Theophane YONLI
Issoufou TAO
Pegdwende Abel SORGHO
Honorine DAHOUROU
Jacques SIMPORE
(*) Corresponding Author:
Abdoul Karim OUATTARA | ak_ouattara@yahoo.fr

Abstract

Background and Objective

The improved performance of serological tests has significantly reduced the risk of human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B and C viruses transmission by blood transfusion, but there is a persistence of residual risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of multiplex PCR in reducing the risk of residual transmission of these viruses in seronegative blood donors in Burkina Faso.

Methods

This cross-sectional study was conducted from March to September 2017. The serological tests were performed on sera using ARCHITECTSRi1000 (Abbot diagnosis, USA). Detection of viral nucleic acids was performed by multiplex PCR on mini-pools of seronegative plasma for HBV, HCV and HIV using SaCycler-96 Real Time PCR v.7.3 (Sacace Biotechnologies). Multiplex PCR-positive samples from these mini-pools were then individually tested by the same method.

Results
A total of 989 donors aged 17 to 65 were included in the present study. "Repeat donors" accounted for 44.79% (443/989). Seroprevalences for HIV, HBV, and HCV were 2.53% (25/989), 7.28% (72/989) and 2.73% (27/989), respectively. Of the 14 co-infections detected, HBV/HCV was the most common with 0.71% (7/989) of cases. Of 808 donations tested by multiplex PCR, 4.70% (38/808) were positive for HBV while no donation was positive for HIV or HCV.

Conclusion: Our study showed a high residual risk of HBV transmission through blood transfusion. Due to the high prevalence of blood-borne infections in Burkina Faso, we recommend the addition of multiplex PCR to serologic tests for optimal blood donation screening.


Downloads month by month

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

References

1. UNAIDS. Global Report on AIDS Epidemic: Treatment and care. 2008. Available at www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/media_asset/jc1510_2008globalreport_en_0.pdf. Accessed on 09/04/2018.

2. Jayaraman S, Chalabi Z, Perel P, Guerriero C, Roberts I. The risk of transfusion‐transmitted infections in sub‐Saharan Africa. Transfusion. 2010;50:433-42.

3. Fasola F, Otegbayo I. Post-transfusion viral hepatitis in sickle cell anaemia: retrospective-prospective analysis. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice. 2002;5:16-9.

4. Nagalo BM, Bisseye C, Sanou M, Kienou K, Nebié YK, Kiba A, Dahourou H, Ouattara S, Nikiema JB, Moret R. Seroprevalence and incidence of transfusion‐transmitted infectious diseases among blood donors from regional blood transfusion centres in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Tropical medicine & international health. 2012;17:247-53.

5. Nagalo MB, Sanou M, Bisseye C, Kaboré MI, Nebie YK, Kienou K, Kiba A, Dahourou H, Ouattara S, Zongo JD. Seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses and syphilis among blood donors in Koudougou (Burkina Faso) in 2009. Blood transfusion. 2011;9:419.

6. Pietra V, Kiema D, Sorgho D, Kabore S, Mande S, Castelli F, Puoti M, Simpore J. Prévalence des marqueurs du virus de l’hépatite B et des anticorps contre le virus de l’hépatite C parmi le personnel du District Sanitaire de Nanoro, Burkina Faso. Science et technique, sciences de la santé. 2008;31:53-9.

7. Collenberg E, Ouedraogo T, Ganamé J, Fickenscher H, Kynast‐Wolf G, Becher H, Kouyaté B, Kräusslich HG, Sangaré L, Tebit DM. Seroprevalence of six different viruses among pregnant women and blood donors in rural and urban Burkina Faso: a comparative analysis. Journal of medical virology. 2006;78:683-92.

8. Zeba MTA, Sanou M, Bisseye C, Kiba A, Nagalo BM, Djigma FW, Compaoré TR, Nebié YK, Kienou K, Sagna T. Characterisation of hepatitis C virus genotype among blood donors at the regional blood transfusion centre of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Blood Transfusion. 2014;12:s54.

9. Tao I, Compaoré TR, Diarra B, Djigma F, Zohoncon TM, Assih M, Ouermi D, Pietra V, Karou SD, Simpore J. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B and C viruses in the general population of burkina faso. Hepatitis research and treatment. 2014;2014.

10. Kleinman S, Busch MP, Korelitz JJ, Schreiber GB. The incidence/window period model and its use to assess the risk of transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infection. Transfusion medicine reviews. 1997;11:155-72.

11. WHO. Blood safety: A strategy for the AFRICAN REGION. 2001. Available at http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/95734/AFR_RC51_R2.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. Accessed on 09/04/2018.

12. Davidson T, Ekermo B, Gaines H, Lesko B, Åkerlind B. The cost‐effectiveness of introducing nucleic acid testing to test for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus among blood donors in Sweden. Transfusion. 2011;51:421-9.

13. Stramer S, Glynn S, Kleinman S. Detection of Hiv-1 and Hcv infections among antibody-negative blood donors by nucleic acid amplification testing. Vox Sanguinis. 2005;88:68-9.

14. Zou S, Dorsey KA, Notari EP, Foster GA, Krysztof DE, Musavi F, Dodd RY, Stramer SL. Prevalence, incidence, and residual risk of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infections among United States blood donors since the introduction of nucleic acid testing. Transfusion. 2010;50:1495-504.

15. CNLS/IST. Rapport d'activité sur la riposte au SIDA au Burkina Faso. http://www wwwunaidsorg/sites/default/files/country//BFA_narrative_report_2016pdf. 2016. Accessed on 09/04/2018.

16. Mavenyengwa RT, Mukesi M, Chipare I, Shoombe E. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, hepatitis B and C in blood donations in Namibia. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:424.

17. Noubiap JJN, Joko WYA, Nansseu JRN, Tene UG, Siaka C. Sero-epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C viruses, and syphilis infections among first-time blood donors in Edéa, Cameroon. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2013;17:e832-e7.

18. Nébié K, Olinger C, Kafando E, Dahourou H, Diallo S, Kientega Y, Domo Y, Kienou K, Ouattara S, Sawadogo I. Faible niveau de connaissances des donneurs de sang au Burkina Faso; une entrave potentielle à la sécurité transfusionnelle. Transfusion clinique et biologique. 2007;14:446-52.

19. Stokx J, Gillet P, De Weggheleire A, Casas EC, Maendaenda R, Beulane AJ, Jani IV, Kidane S, Mosse CD, Jacobs J. Seroprevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections and evaluation of the pre-donation screening performance at the Provincial Hospital of Tete, Mozambique. BMC infectious diseases. 2011;11:141.

20. Seck M, Dieye B, Guèye Y, Faye B, Senghor A, Toure S, Dieng N, Sall A, Touré A, Dièye T. Évaluation de l’efficacité de la sélection médicale des donneurs de sang dans la prévention des agents infectieux. Transfusion Clinique et Biologique. 2016;23:98-102.

21. Tagny CT, Kouao MD, Touré H, Gargouri J, Fazul AS, Ouattara S, Anani L, Othmani H, Feteke L, Dahourou H. Transfusion safety in francophone African countries: an analysis of strategies for the medical selection of blood donors. Transfusion. 2012;52:134-43.

22. Kafando E, Nébié Y, S S, Kienou K, Dahourou H, Simpore J. Risk Behavior among Ineligible Blood Donors in a Blood Transfusion Center (Burkina Faso). J Hematol Blood Transfus Disord. 2017;4:015.

23. Owusu‐Ofori S, Temple J, Sarkodie F, Anokwa M, Candotti D, Allain JP. Predonation screening of blood donors with rapid tests: implementation and efficacy of a novel approach to blood safety in resource‐poor settings. Transfusion. 2005;45:133-40.

24. Vermeulen M, Lelie N, Sykes W, Crookes R, Swanevelder J, Gaggia L, Le Roux M, Kuun E, Gulube S, Reddy R. Impact of individual‐donation nucleic acid testing on risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus transmission by blood transfusion in South Africa. Transfusion. 2009;49:1115-25.

25. Nantachit N, Thaikruea L, Thongsawat S, Leetrakool N, Fongsatikul L, Sompan P, Fong YL, Nichols D, Ziermann R, Ness P. Evaluation of a multiplex human immunodeficiency virus‐1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus nucleic acid testing assay to detect viremic blood donors in northern Thailand. Transfusion. 2007;47:1803-8.

26. Velati C, Romanò L, Fomiatti L, Baruffi L, Zanetti AR. Impact of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus on the safety of blood supply in Italy: a 6‐year survey. Transfusion. 2008;48:2205-13.

27. Hourfar MK, Jork C, Schottstedt V, Weber‐Schehl M, Brixner V, Busch MP, Geusendam G, Gubbe K, Mahnhardt C, Mayr‐Wohlfart U. Experience of German Red Cross blood donor services with nucleic acid testing: results of screening more than 30 million blood donations for human immunodeficiency virus‐1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus. Transfusion. 2008;48:1558-66.

28. Somda K, Sermé A, Coulibaly A, Cissé K, Sawadogo A, Sombié A, Bougouma A. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Should Not Be the Only Sought Marker to Distinguish Blood Donors towards Hepatitis B Virus Infection in High Prevalence Area. Open Journal of Gastroenterology. 2016;6:362.

29. Diarra B, Yonli AT, Sorgho PA, Compaore TR, Ouattara AK, Zongo WA, Tao I, Traore L, Soubeiga ST, Djigma FW. Occult hepatitis B virus infection and associated genotypes among HBsAg-negative subjects in Burkina Faso. Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases. 2018;10.

30. Raimondo G, Allain J-P, Brunetto MR, Buendia M-A, Chen D-S, Colombo M, Craxì A, Donato F, Ferrari C, Gaeta GB. Statements from the Taormina expert meeting on occult hepatitis B virus infection. Journal of hepatology. 2008;49:652-7.

31. Nagalo B, Bisseye C, Sanou M, Nebié Y, Kiba A, Kienou K, Zongo J, Simporé J. Diagnostic moléculaire du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine acquise (VIH) sur les pools de plasmas de donneurs de sang au centre régional de transfusion sanguine de Ouagadougou (CRST-0), Burkina Faso. Médecine tropicale. 2011;71:137-41.

32. Assih M, Feteke L, Bisseye C, Ouermi D, Djigma F, Karou SD, Simpore J. Molecular diagnosis of the human immunodeficiency, hepatitis B and C viruses among blood donors in lomé (Togo) by multiplex real time PCR. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2016;25.

33. Lefrère JJ, Dahourouh H, Dokekias AE, Kouao MD, Diarra A, Diop S, Tapko JB, Murphy EL, Laperche S, Pillonel J. Estimate of the residual risk of transfusion‐transmitted human immunodeficiency virus infection in sub‐Saharan Africa: a multinational collaborative study. Transfusion. 2011;51:486-92.

34. Basavaraju S, Mwangi J, Nyamongo J, Zeh C, Kimani D, Shiraishi R, Madoda R, Okonji J, Sugut W, Ongwae S. Reduced risk of transfusion‐transmitted HIV in Kenya through centrally co‐ordinated blood centres, stringent donor selection and effective p24 antigen‐HIV antibody screening. Vox sanguinis. 2010;99:212-9.