1 Department of Internal Medicine, Papanikolaou General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
2 Microbiology Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
3 Pediatrics-Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, 2nd Pediatric Department, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
Received: April 19, 2018
Accepted: July 15, 2018
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2018, 10(1): e2018048 DOI 10.4084/MJHID.2018.048
This article is available on PDF format at:
| This is an Open Access article distributed
under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
aspergillosis (IA) is an important cause of infectious morbidity and
mortality in immunocompromised paediatric patients. Despite
improvements in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment, IA is still
associated with high mortality rates. To address this issue, several
international societies and organisations have proposed guidelines for
the management of IA in the paediatric population. In this article, we
review current recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Society of
America, the European Conference on Infection in Leukaemia and the
European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases for
the management and prevention of IA in children.
According to a large contemporary study, Aspergillus fumigatus is the predominant isolate, as in adults, followed by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus terreus, while the lungs are the most frequently infected site, followed by disseminated disease.[1-3,13] Especially in the pediatric population, primary cutaneous aspergillosis has been reported and associated with a favorable prognosis.[4,14,15] A. fumigatus seems to be the most common species isolated in the pulmonary infections, while A. flavus is predominantly found in skin infections.
Despite improvements in antifungal prevention and treatment, IA is related to high mortality rates, which are historically ranging from 52.5%-85% in children with cancer, while the overall fatality rate of pediatric patients with IA who had to undergo allogeneic HSCT ranges from 45%-80% in different studies.[3-6,8,16-20] In children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) IAI increases the mortality rate 5-fold for AML and 14-fold for ALL. The observation from the literature reveals that the overall mortality before 1990 was 82.8%, while is reported to be 39.5% after it.
Ιn this review article, the International guidelines for the management of Aspergillosis disease published in the last three years are summarized and compared. Among other national and international guidelines in this review are compared the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the European Conference on Infection in Leukaemia (ECIL) and the ESCMID (European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases) - ECCM (European Confederation of Medical Mycology) - ERS (European Respiratory Society) guidelines.[12,22,23] The methodologies used by the three expert groups are quite similar. IDSA guidelines published in 2016 focus on adults and issue speciﬁc recommendations for children because of their different drug dosage and pharmacology, while recommend using the same treatment approach as in adults. Of note, the ECIL group focuses on pediatric patients with cancer and HSCT recipients. Additionally, the ECIL group issues guidelines for diagnosis, prevention, and management of invasive opportunistic fungal diseases (IFDs) and not strictly for IA, whereas ESCMID-ECMM-ERS experts group issues guidelines specifically for the prevention, diagnostic procedure, and management of aspergillosis in adults and pediatric population.[22,23] The strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence vary between the different working groups except for the ECIL group that adopted the grading system suggested by the IDSA for adults, whereas the important differences existing for pediatric patients were considered. The IDSA expert group also provides guidance on how the factors that could increase or decrease the quality of evidence should be weight and regarding the strength of a recommendation if the benefits of following it are likely to outweigh potential harms. Differentiations in methodology, scope and patients populations between these guidelines are shown in Table 1.
|Table 1. Comparison of the methodology of guidelines for IA in children.|
Diagnosis of IA in Children
Galactomannan (GM) is a heteropolysaccharide, cell-wall component released by all Aspergillus spp that can be detected in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples by an enzyme immunoassay with high speciﬁcity and sensitivity in pediatric patients, although false-positive results can occur for various reasons.[31-45] GM testing has a lower sensitivity for use in non-neutropenic patients and those who have received mold-active prophylaxis.[46,47] Although there is a limited number of studies evaluating the use of GM assay in pediatric patients, the combined sensitivity and specificity of the five pediatric studies that used EORTC/MSG criteria and included adequate information for individual patients were comparable to adults.[34,36,48-51] Blood GM testing in diagnosing invasive aspergillosis is strongly recommended by the ESCMID-ECMM-ERS group for use in prolonged neutropenic patients with underlying hematological malignancy and for monitoring patients with cancer, while the same recommendations are proposed for children. Additionally, serial screening for GM in blood in neutropenia and HSCT recipients in the absence of mould prophylaxis has a high sensitivity and negative predictive value for IA in a clinical and imaging context. The Further to this, the IDSA and ECIL group strongly recommend the serum and BAL GM as an accurate marker in children with hematologic malignancy and HSCT recipients, but not in SOT recipients and in children who have received mold-active prophylaxis.[12,22,23,52-69] Finally, a limited amount of data also suggest the usefulness of GM testing in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with involvement of the CNS.[70,71]
The presence of (1→3)-β-D-glucan in serum signifies the presence of fungal invasion but is not specific for Aspergillus spp, as it could also be positive in candidiasis, fusariosis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.
The ß-D-glucan test is not validated yet in children, while higher baseline levels are reported in healthy children, and therefore the cut-off is yet unknown.[72-76] As a result, no evidence-based recommendations can be made for children, only a proposal for the evaluation of ß-D-glucan in high-risk adults with hematological malignancy and allogeneic HSCT.[12,22,23,77,78]
Regarding the diagnostic value of nucleic acid testing the three groups, ECIL, ESCMID-ECMM-ERS, and IDSA group do not make any recommendation in the pediatric population due to the absence of standardization and validation of the PCR assays results.[12,22,23] Nevertheless, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostic methods in blood or serum are currently evaluated for inclusion as a diagnostic method in the MSG/EORTC consensus group criteria. Of note, in a recent study in which  pediatric patients were evaluated, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 80% and 81% respectively.
Typical abnormalities (e.g., halo sign, air crescent sign) on CT-chest as described in adults are less frequent in children in which masses or infiltrates predominate. Due to the scarcity of evidence in persistently febrile neutropenic children with cancer and proven pulmonary IA, there are no strong recommendations from either of the three groups.[3,54,81,82] Nevertheless, in high-risk children with febrile neutropenia persistent for more than 96 h or with focal clinical findings, imaging studies such as a CT are moderately recommended by the ECIL group, as they should provide evidence for the initiation of mold-active treatment. Regarding the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, the IDSA group recommend the performing of bronchoscopy with BAL(A-II), while comorbidities such as severe hypoxemia, bleeding, and platelet transfusion-refractory thrombocytopenia may be considered.
Differences in the strength of the recommendation and the quality of evidence regarding the non-cultural diagnostic methods for diagnosis of IA in children between these groups are shown in Table 2.
|Table 2. Comparison of the strength of recommendation and quality of evidence in non-culture diagnostic methods for diagnosis of IA in children.|
Treatment and Prophylaxis of Invasive Aspergillosis
Primary prophylaxis. Guidelines for the prevention of IA in children are released only by the ESCMID-ECMM-ERS and ECIL experts group. As a general principle, these guidelines recommend the use of antifungal agents as primary prophylaxis in pediatric patients at ‘high risk’ for developing IA. High risk populations include children with de novo or recurrent leukaemia (AML, ALL), bone marrow failure syndromes with profound and prolonged neutropenia (MDS, aplastic anaemia), allo-HSCT recipients, patients with chronic granulomatous disease and those undergoing lung transplantation.[85,86] Additionally, the local epidemiology should be considered when designing an appropriate institutional prophylaxis strategy.
Two randomised studies of antifungal prophylaxis compared micafungin and voriconazole, respectively, to ﬂuconazole in the setting of allogeneic HSCT, while paediatric patients were making up about 10% of all enrolled participants. Thus, these two studies provided important randomised safety data for micafungin and voriconazole.[88,89] Further to this, a large number of retrospective and prospective studies have been done with various mould-active and mould non-active agents.[90,91] Due to the scarcity of paediatric data, recommendations for lung and liver transplant patients correspond to those made for adults.[85,86]
ESCMID-ECMM-ERS guidelines strongly recommend (A-II) voriconazole (>2 years, supported by HSCT trials and studies) and posaconazole (>13 years, supported by pediatric data) plus TDM as a prophylaxis for allo-HSCT recipients, in the pre or the post-engraftment phase or with graft versus host disease (GvHD) or with augmented immunosuppression, in high risk paediatric patients with de novo or recurrent leukaemia, with bone marrow failure syndromes with prolonged and severe neutropenia.[23,92-111] In addition to this, this expert group strongly recommends itraconazole with TDM (approved EU only for patients older than 18 years) in allo-HSCT recipients in the pre-engraftment phase, in high-risk patients with de novo or recurrent leukaemia, with bone marrow failure syndromes with neutropenia. Whereas, there is moderate evidence for recommendation of this agent in allo-HSCT recipients in post-engraftment phase, with GvHD and in augmented immunosuppression.[23,112-123] Liposomal Amphotericin B is not approved for prophylaxis, only as an alternative agent in case of triazoles are not tolerated or contra-indicated.[23,124-130] Further to this, there is no definite evidence for the prophylactic efficacy of micafungin against Aspergillus spp, only as an alternative agent in the same cases as above.[23,131-135] Liposomal Amphotericin B and micafungin have a low quality of evidence for recommendation in allo-HSCT recipients in the post-engraftment phase, with GvHD and in augmented immunosuppression(B-III). Finally, the ESCMID-ECMM-ERS group suggests as a prophylactic strategy for patients with CGD the use of itraconazole and posaconazole with TDM (both not approved in EU for patients <18 years, although for posaconazole safety data exist for children ≥ four years, but not yet approved).[23,97-100,118-123,136,137]
ECIL guidelines suggest three different group of pediatric patients: a) allogeneic HSCT recipients without GVHD b) allogeneic HSCT recipients with GVHD and c) patients with de novo or recurrent leukaemia.
In the first group the ECIL recommends the use of antifungal agents as prophylaxis during the granulocytopenic phase until engraftment (B-II) and after the engraftment in the absence of GvHD until discontinuation of immunosuppression (no grading), including moderate recommendation of voriconazole (children aged>2 years, supported by pharmacokinetic, safety, and efficacy data in paediatric patients) and itraconazole (not approved in children aged <18 years, also supported by pharmacokinetic, safety, and efficacy data in paediatric patients).[22,110,111,123] Liposomal amphotericin B, as also the ESCMID-ECMM-ERS guidelines suggested, is not approved for prophylaxis of IA. It is approved as an alternative option for patients who do not tolerate triazoles or have contraindications to them (supported by pharmacokinetic, safety, and efficacy data in paediatric patients), while aerosolised liposomal amphotericin B is not either approved for prevention, due to the unknown of the appropriate dosage schedule in children<18 years.[22,23,138-140] Finally, regarding posaconazole there is no grading in the ECIL group guidelines because of the limited pharmacokinetic data in children aged ≥13 years, in contrast to the ESCMID-ECMM-ERS guidelines which strongly recommend it with TDM for children>13 years.[22,23,141]
In the second group, in the presence of GvHD treated with augmented immunosuppressive agents (including glucocorticosteroids or anti-inﬂammatory antibodies), prevention against IAIs is recommended (A-II) by the ECIL guidelines. The recommended options are: posaconazole plus TDM for patients aged >13 years (B-I), voriconazole plus TDM for patients aged>2 years(B-I), whereas the ESCMID-ECMM-ERS groups strongly recommend these agents.[22,23] Additionally, itraconazole plus TDM is also recommended(C-II) for this group of patients. Other options may include intravenous liposomal amphotericin B and micafungin (no grading).
Finally, in the third group suggested by the ECIL guidelines, specifically in high-risk patients with de-novo or recurrent acute leukaemia, primary prophylaxis against Aspergillus spp should be considered (B-II). The prevention may include itraconazole with TDM (B-I, in children aged ≥2 years), although it is not approved for children<18 years, posaconazole plus TDM in patients aged 13 years or older (B-I) and intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (B-II) as an alternative option for patients who do not tolerate triazoles or have contraindications to them. Other possible options include aerosolised liposomal amphotericin B, micafungin, and voriconazole with TDM (no grading because of inferences for efficacy from studies in the HSCT recipients). The concomitant use of itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole with vincristine and other anticancer agents should be carefully considered.[114,138,142,143]
Guidelines for the prevention of IA in children are not released by the IDSA group.
The strength of recommendation, the quality of evidence, the indication and the dosage of the antifungal agents recommended as primary prophylaxis by the two expert groups are shown in Table 3.
|Table 3. Comparison of recommendations on primary prophylaxis from IA in children.|
Secondary prophylaxis. There are a limited number of studies about the term secondary antifungal chemoprophylaxis, but the available data suggest an IFD relapse rate of 30–50% in leukemia or allogeneic HSCT settings. Data in paediatric patients are limited to a prospective study, which evaluated 11 adolescents with acute leukaemia and a history of antecedent possible or probable IA who received intravenous liposomal amphotericin B followed by oral voriconazole during and after allogeneic HSCT. In the absence of GvHD, two breakthrough infections occurred that were correlated with recurrent leukaemia and refractory graft failure.
On the basis of these data and other existing data from adults, secondary antifungal prophylaxis or continued antifungal treatment is recommended by the ECIL guidelines, targeted against the previous Aspergillus species, for as long as the patient is neutropenic or immunosuppressed (A-II). [22,145] Nevertheless, no recommendations about the duration of therapy and the extent of patient’s response before the continuation of anticancer regimens or initiation of the treatment for allogeneic HSCT could be made by the ECIL group due to the lack of data (no grading).
The ESCMID-ECMM-ERS group also proposes that secondary prophylaxis to prevent recurrence of IA in children when risk factors are persisting should consist of an antifungal agent targeted at the previous Aspergillus species which caused the first episode.
The IDSA guidelines for the secondary prevention of IA in children are the same as for adults. For patients with successfully treated pulmonary aspergillosis who require subsequent immunosuppression, secondary prophylaxis is recommended to prevent recurrence (A-II).
Targeted (first-line) treatment of IA in children. Despite improvements in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment, IA is still associated with high mortality rates among children.[6,146,147] In the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) Phase III AML chemotherapy trial CCG 2961, the incidence of IFIs in children with AML was 13% per treatment phase and almost one-third of the documented IFI were caused by Aspergillus spp and the mortality rate of IA ranged from 15% to 57%, depending on the phase of chemotherapy. A survey performed in the US documented the annual incidence of IA in children to be was 0.4%, while in the US 2000 Kids’ Inpatient Database, the fatality rate for children with cancer and IA (21%) at first discharge was much greater than that in children with malignancy but no IA (1%).[2,9-10]
The most recent guidelines for the treatment of IA in children were released by the ECIL in 2014, the IDSA in 2016 and the ESCMID-ECMM-ERS in 2017. Although no consistency in the three guidelines is found, in principle voriconazole, liposomal amphotericin B, and caspofungin are proposed as drugs of choice.[12,22,23]
All of the three expert groups propose that general management principles of IA might include prompt initiation of antifungal treatment, control of predisposing conditions (e.g., reduction or discontinuation of corticosteroids in immunosuppressed patients, colony-stimulating factors in granulocytopaenic patients), and surgical interventions on a case by case basis using a multidisciplinary approach. Granulocyte transfusions might be considered in patients with profound and prolonged granulocytopenia. A thorough evaluation of further sites of infection, particularly the CNS, should be included. The optimal duration of therapy is not deﬁned but determined by the resolution of all signs and symptoms and reversal of the underlying deﬁcit in host defenses.[12,22,23,139,140]
The IDSA guidelines propose that in the treatment of IA in children the same recommended therapies as in adult patients should be used with a different dosing.(A-I) This expert group favour the use of voriconazole (approved for patients  years and older) also for children by evaluating substantial pharmacokinetic data and experience. The recommended pediatric dosing is higher than for adults. Reduced voriconazole levels may be observed with oral administration.[12,84,105,149] In addition to this, IDSA groups recommend the liposomal amphotericin B(A-II) with the same dosing as in adults and the posaconazole for children>13 years for both the oral suspension and tablet and for older than 18 years the intravenous formulation. Further to this, it suggests the use of caspofungin for children three months and older and micafungin for children four months and older.[12,133,150] The echinocandins are strongly recommended to be avoided as a primary treatment (A-II), while the combination with voriconazole may be considered in selected patients(C-II). Of note, anidulafungin is not FDA approved for children.[12,151-153] Finally, the expert group recommends that treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis need to be continued for a minimum of 6–12 weeks, dependent on the degree and duration of immunosuppression, site of disease, and evidence of disease improvement (A-III).
The recently published ESCMID-ECMM-ERS guidelines also favour the use of voriconazole (A-II) as the first line agent to treat IA in paediatric patients aged>2 years.[23,84,104-107,110,111,149,154-159] This experts group gives a more moderate recommendation for the use of Liposomal Amphotericin B (B-II) due to relatively limited clinical data for comparison to voriconazole.[23,128,130,160-163] Finally, for caspofungin, the ESCMID-ECMM-ERS guidelines give a weak recommendation(C-II) since the study has been prematurely stopped because of low accrual.[23,150,164-173] All the recommendations of the expert group are referring to pediatric patients with cancer, bone marrow failure syndromes, CGD and to HSCT and SOT recipients.
The recommendations of the ECIL group are generally based on dose ﬁnding studies and phase III clinical trials. The group gives a strong recommendation for the use of intravenous voriconazole with TDM, based on the pivotal phase 3 trial in adults (A-I; restricted to patients aged ≥2 years). The voriconazole is suggested as a treatment of choice for infections involving the CNS. The drug dosage for children aged 2<12 years or 12–14 years and weighing <50 kg is 8 mg/kg (day 1, 9 mg/kg) twice daily intravenously or 9 mg/kg twice daily orally, while for children aged ≥15 years or 12–14 years and weighing ≥50 kg is 4 mg/kg (day 1, 6 mg/kg) twice daily intravenously or 200 mg twice daily orally plus TDM.[22,110,111,140] In addition to this, they give a somewhat weaker B-I recommendation for liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg per day intravenously in one dose), due to the fact that the pivotal phase 3 trial was a comparison between two different dose strategies and not a comparison with the reference agent voriconazole. Further to this, they give a moderate recommendation to amphotericin B lipid complex (B-II) with a dosage of 5 mg/kg per day intravenously in one dose. Based on the available data of the randomised, comparative clinical trial the ECIL group suggests no general superiority of combination therapy of voriconazole plus anidulafungin for primary treatment of IA (C-III).[22,140,174]
Comparison of the strength of recommendation, the quality of evidence of the first line antifungal agents for IA in children between the three expert groups is shown in Table 4.
|Table 4. Comparison of the strength of recommendation and quality of evidence in first line agents for targeted treatment of IA in children.|
Second-line and resistant Aspergillus spp treatment of IA in children. Second-line treatment refers to antifungal treatment in patients with response failure or those with intolerance to the initial treatment.
The ECIL group generally suggests that a switch in class might be considered when antifungal treatment is changed for refractory disease (no grading). The group recommends as a second-line treatment liposomal amphotericin B in amphotericin-B-naive patients based on data from the pivotal ﬁrst-line phase 3 trial (B-I), and voriconazole with TDM in voriconazole-naive patients based on data from the pivotal ﬁrst-line phase 3 trial and a second-line phase 2 trial (A-I; restricted to children aged ≥2 years), respectively.[22,110,111,140] Other options approved in pediatric patients include amphotericin B lipid complex (B-II) and caspofungin (A-II, dosage: 50 mg/m² per day intravenously in one dose,70 mg/m² on day 1 loading dose). Regarding the combination therapy, a small phase 2 study, a retrospective cohort study and results from one not fully published phase 3 ﬁrst-line trial demonstrate that there are no differences in the primary endpoint.[152,153,170,176] Only a weak recommendation is made by the ECIL group about the combination therapy with either voriconazole or amphotericin B with an echinocandin for salvage treatment(C-II). Of note, although there is a scarcity of relevant data, the ECIL group recommends a switch in class in patients with breakthrough infections on antifungal prophylaxis or empirical therapy (no grading).
According to ESCMID-ECMM-ERS guidelines, liposomal amphotericin B represents an alternative to voriconazole as first-line treatment of IA in areas or institutions with a high prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus. MIC-testing is recommended for all clinically relevant Aspergillus isolates or if grown in patients previously exposed to or on antifungal therapy. Isavuconazole is strongly recommended in IA due to amphotericin B resistant species only in the adult population and has not yet been approved for children. A switch to a different class of antifungals is recommended by this expert group for salvage therapy and breakthrough infections.[23,177-189]
Guidelines by the IDSA group for the second line treatment of IA in children are the same as for adults. The group recommends as a general strategy for salvage therapy, after excluding the emergence of a new pathogen, a switch to a different class of antifungal agent or the use of an alternative agent with a nonoverlapping side-effect profile, a taper or reversal of underlying immunosuppression when feasible, and a surgical resection of necrotic lesions in selected cases (A-III). The options include lipid formulations of AmB, micafungin, caspofungin, posaconazole, or itraconazole (A-II), or combination of antifungal agents from different classes other than those in the initial regimen (C-II). [12,153,190-193]
Empirical and preemptive (diagnostic-driven) treatment for IA. Empirical treatment for IA is recommended according to the ECIL guidelines in granulocytopenic children with acute leukaemia/allogeneic HSCT after four days of fever of unclear etiology that is unresponsive to broad-spectrum antibacterial agents, and it should be continued until resolution of granulocytopenia in the absence of suspected or documented IFIs (B-II). The ECIL additionally suggests that empirical antifungal therapy might be considered in individual persistently febrile children with low-risk disorders and profound and prolonged granulocytopenia and severe mucosal damage (no grading). Both the ECIL and ESCMID-ECMM-ERS guidelines favour the use of liposomal amphotericin and caspofungin (A-I) based on large randomised clinical trials comparing the caspofungin versus liposomal amphotericin b and the different formulations of amphotericin b for empiric antifungal therapy in pediatric patients with persistent fever and neutropenia.[22,23,194-196] The similar treatment approach is proposed by the ECIL group in those granulocytopenic patients who develop a recurrent fever after afebrile period upon the initiation of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents (no grading). According to the ECIL guidelines, a switch to a different class of mould-active antifungal agents and the initiation of either caspofungin or liposomal amphotericin B for empirical therapy in patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis without mould activity need to be considered (no grading).
The intention of pre-emptive antifungal treatment, which uses clinical, usually non-culture-based microbiological and radiographic data to establish whether or not to initiate antifungal therapy in granulocytopenic patients, is to reduce the exposure to unnecessary antifungal therapy. The usefulness of this strategy has been shown in adults, and it has been established as an alternative option to the empirical treatment.[191-195] Although there is a lack of data assessing the paediatric population, the ECIL group suggests that pre-emptive approach as a strategy in children (no grading) with the prerequisite of rapid performance of pulmonary CT imaging, GM testing and the availability to undertake bronchoscopies with BAL. According to the ESCMID-ECMM-ERS guidelines, treatment recommendations for a diagnostic-driven strategy correspond to those made for targeted treatment.[23,197-201] Guidelines for empirical and the diagnostic driven therapy of IA in children are not released by the IDSA group.
IDSA guidelines published in 2016 focus on adults and issue speciﬁc recommendations for children while recommend using the same treatment approach as in adults. The ECIL group focuses on pediatric patients with cancer and HSCT recipients. Additionally, the ECIL group releases guidelines for diagnosis, prevention, and management of invasive opportunistic fungal diseases (IFDs) and not strictly for IA, whereas ESCMID-ECMM-ERS experts group issue guidelines for the prevention, diagnostic procedure and management of aspergillosis in adults and pediatric population.[22,23] Despite the usefulness of the above guidelines in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of IA, guidelines focused on pediatric IA need to be issued considering the high mortality rate of the disease in children.
- Tragiannidis A, Roilides E, Walsh TJ and Groll AH. Invasive aspergillosis in children with acquired immunodeficiencies. Clin Infect Dis. 2012; 54: 258-256. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cir786 PMid:22075793
- Zaoutis TE, Heydon K, Chu JH, Walsh TJ, Steinbach WJ. Epidemiology, outcomes, and costs of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised children in the United States, 2000. Pediatrics 2006; 117: 711-716. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-1161 PMid:16533892
- Burgos A, Zaoutis TE, Dvorak CC, Hoffman JA, Knapp KM, Nania JJ, Prasad P, Steinbach WJ. Pediatric invasive aspergillosis: a multicenter retrospective analysis of 139 contemporary cases. Pediatrics 2008; 121: 1286-1294. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-2117 PMid:18450871
- Walmsley S, Devi S, King S, Schneider R, Richardson S, Ford-Jones L. Invasive Aspergillus infections in a pediatric hospital: a ten-year review. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1993; 12: 673-682. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-199308000-00009 PMid:8414781
- vAbbasi S, Shenep JL, Hughes WT, Flynn PM. Aspergillosis in children with cancer: a 34-year experience. Clin Infect Dis 1999; 29:1210-1219. https://doi.org/10.1086/313445 PMid:10524965
- Groll AH, Kurz M, Schneider W, Witt V, Schmidt H, Schneider M, Schwabe D. Five-year-survey of invasive aspergillosis in a paediatric cancer centre. Epidemiology, management and long-term survival. Mycoses. 1999; 42: 431–442. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0507.1999.00496.x PMid:10546484
- Lin SJ, Schranz J, Teutsch SM. Aspergillosis case-fatality rate: systematic review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32: 358-366. https://doi.org/10.1086/318483 PMid:11170942
- Kontoyiannis DP, Marr KA, Park BJ, Alexander BD, Anaissie EJ, Walsh TJ, Ito J, Andes DR, Baddley JW, Brown JM, Brumble LM, Freifeld AG, Hadley S, Herwaldt LA, Kauffman CA, Knapp K, Lyon GM, Morrison VA, Papanicolaou G, Patterson TF, Perl TM, Schuster MG, Walker R, Wannemuehler KA, Wingard JR, Chiller TM, Pappas PG.. Prospective surveillance for invasive fungal infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, 2001–2006: overview of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) Database. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50: 1091-1100. https://doi.org/10.1086/651263 PMid:20218877
- Steinbach WJ. Epidemiology of Invasive Fungal Infections in Neonates and Children. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010 ;16: 1321-1327. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03288.x PMid:20840541
- Segal BH. Aspergillosis. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 1870–1884. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra0808853. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra0808853
- Gerson SL, Talbot GH, Hurwitz S, Strom BL, Lusk EJ, Cassileth PA. Prolonged granulocytopenia: the major risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with acute leukemia. Ann Intern Med 1984; 100:345–51. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-100-3-345 PMid:6696356
- Thomas F. Patterson, George R. Thompson III, David W. Denning, Jay A. Fishman, Susan Hadley, Raoul Herbrecht, , Kontoyiannis DP, Marr KA, Morrison VA, Nguyen MH, Segal BH, Steinbach WJ, Stevens DA, Walsh TJ, Wingard JR, Young JA, Bennett JE. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Aspergillosis: 2016 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016. 15; 63(4): e1-e60.
- Walsh TJ, Gonzalez C, Lyman CA, Chanock SJ, Pizzo P. Invasive fungal infections in children: recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Adv Pediatr Infect Dis 1996; 11: 187-290. PMid:8718464
- Kerl K, Koch B, Fegeler W, Rossig C, Ehlert K, Groll AH. Catheter-associated aspergillosis of the chest wall following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis 2011; 13: 182-185. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3062.2010.00559.x PMid:20738831
- Allo MD, Miller J, Townsend T, Tan C. Primary cutaneous aspergillosis associated with Hickman intravenous catheters. N Engl J Med 1987; 317: 1105-1108. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198710293171802 PMid:3657878
- Lin SJ, Schranz J, Teutsch SM: Aspergillosis case-fatality rate: systematic review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32: 358–366 https://doi.org/10.1086/318483 PMid:11170942
- Hovi L, Saarinen-Pihkala UM, Vettenranta K, Saxen H. Invasive fungal infections in pediatric bone marrow transplant recipients: single center experience of 10 years. Bone Marrow Transplant 2000; 26: 999-1004. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bmt.1702654 PMid:11100280
- Benjamin DK Jr., Miller WC, Bayliff S, Martel L, Alexander KA, Martin PL. Infections diagnosed in the first year after pediatric stem cell transplantation. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002; 21: 227-234. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-200203000-00013
- Crassard N, Hadden H, Pondarré C, , Hadden R, Galambrun C, Piens MA, Pracros JP, Souillet G, Basset T, Berthier JC, Philippe N, Bertrand Y Invasive aspergillosis and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children: a 15-year experience. Transpl Infect Dis 2008;10:177-183 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3062.2008.00304.x PMid:18331389
- Castagnola E, Faraci M, Moroni C, R Bandettini, C Granata, S Caruso, F Bagnasco, I Caviglia, M Malgorzata, E Furfaro, A R Natalizia, V de Fazio, G Morreale, E Lanino, R Haupt, G Dini & C Viscoli. Invasive mycoses in children receiving hemopoietic SCT. Bone Marrow Transplant 2008;41 Suppl 2:S107-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/bmt.2008.67 PMid:18545231
- Dotis J, Iosifidis E, Roilides E. Central nervous system aspergillosis in children: a systematic review of reported cases. Int J Infect Dis 2007; 11: 381–393 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2007.01.013 PMid:17509921
- Andreas H Groll, Elio Castagnola, Simone Cesaro, Jean-Hugues Dalle, Dan Engelhard, William Hope, Emmanuel Roilides, Jan Styczynski, Adilia Warris, Thomas Lehrnbecher. Fourth European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL-4): guidelines for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of invasive fungal diseases in paediatric patients with cancer or allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Lancet Oncol 2014; 15: 327–340 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70017-8
- Ullmann AJ. Aguado JM. Arikan-Akdagli S, Denning D, Groll A, Lagrou K , C. Lass-Flör, R.E. Lewis, P. Muno, P.E. Verweij, A. Warris, F. Ader, M. Akova, M.C. Arendrup, R.A. Barnes, C. Beigelman-Aubry, S. Blot, E. Bouza, R.J.M. Brüggemann, D. Buchheidt, J. Cadranel, E. Castagnola, A. Chakrabarti, M. Cuenca-Estrella, G. Dimopoulos, J. Fortun, J.-P. Gangneux, J. Garbino, W.J. Heinz, R. Herbrecht, C.P. Heussel, C.C. Kibbler, N. Klimko, B.J. Kullberg, C. Lange, T. Lehrnbecher, J. Löffler, O. Lortholary, J. Maertens, O. Marchetti, J.F. Meis, L. Pagano, P. Ribaud, M. Richardson, E. Roilides, M. Ruhnke, M. Sanguinetti, D.C. Sheppard, J. Sinkó, A. Skiada, M.J.G.T. Vehreschild, C. Viscoli, O.A. Cornel. Diagnosis and management of Aspergillus diseases: executive summary of the 2017 ESCMID-ECMM-ERS-ECMM-ERS guideline. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2018.01.002.
- Fraczek MG, Kirwan MB, Moore CB, Morris J, Denning DW, Richardson MD. Volume dependency for culture of fungi from respiratory secretions and increased sensitivity of aspergillus quantitative pcr. Mycoses. 2014; 57: 69-78. https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12103 PMid:23786547
- Dornbusch HJ, Manzoni P, Roilides E, Walsh TJ, Groll AH. Invasive fungal infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009; 28: 734–737. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3181b076b1 PMid:19633517
- Dornbusch HJ, Groll A, Walsh TJ. Diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised children. Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 1328–1334. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03336.x PMid:20678175
- Roilides E. Early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in infants and children. Med Mycol 2006; 44: 199-205 https://doi.org/10.1080/13693780600810057
- Guarner J, Brandt ME. Histopathologic diagnosis of fungal infections in the 21st century. Clin Microbiol Rev 2011; 24:247–280 https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00053-10 PMid:21482725 PMCid:PMC3122495
- Vyzantiadis TA, Johnson EM, Kibbler CC. From the patient to the clinical mycology laboratory: how can we optimise microscopy and culture methods for mould identification? J Clin Pathol 2012; 65:475–483 https://doi.org/10.1136/jclinpath-2011-200500 PMid:22308268
- Barton RC.Laboratory diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis: from diagnosis to prediction of outcome. Scientifica 2013; 2013:459405. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/459405 PMid:24278780 PMCid:PMC3820361
- Lehrnbecher T, Phillips R, Alexander S, Alexander S, Ammann RA, Beauchemin M, Carlesse F, Groll AH, Haeusler GM, Santolaya M, Steinbach WJ, Castagnola E, Davis BL, Dupuis LL, Gaur AH, Tissing WJE, Zaoutis T, Phillips R, Sung L and the International Pediatric Fever and Neutropenia Guideline Panel. Guideline for the management of fever and neutropenia in children with cancer and/ or undergoing hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. J Clin Oncol 2012; 30: 4427–4438. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2012.42.7161 PMid:22987086
- Groll AH, Tragiannidis A. Recent advances in antifungal prevention and treatment. Semin Hematol 2009; 46: 212-229. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.seminhematol.2009.03.003 PMid:19549575
- Pfeiffer CD, Fine JP, Safdar N. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis using a galactomannan assay: A meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006; 42: 1417-1427. https://doi.org/10.1086/503427 PMid:16619154
- Hovi L, Saxen H, Saarinen-Pihkala UM, Vettenranta K, Meri T, Richardson M. Prevention and monitoring of invasive fungal infections in pediatric patients with cancer and hematologic disorders. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007; 48: 28-34. https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.20717 PMid:16395687
- Steinbach WJ, Addison RM, McLaughlin L, Gerrald Q, Martin PL, Driscoll T, Bentsen C, Perfect JR, Alexander BD. Prospective aspergillus galactomannan antigen testing in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007; 26: 558-564. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3180616cbb PMid:17596794
- Hayden R, Pounds S, Knapp K, Petraitiene R, Schaufele RL, Sein T, Walsh TJ. Galactomannan antigenemia in pediatric oncology patients with invasive aspergillosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008; 27: 815-819. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e31817197ab PMid:18703991
- Castagnola E, Furfaro E, Caviglia I, Licciardello M, Faraci M, Fioredda F, Tomà P, Bandettini R, Machetti M, Viscoli C. Performance of the galactomannan antigen detection test in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in children with cancer or undergoing haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010; 16: 1197-1203. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.03065.x PMid:20156215
- Fisher BT, Zaoutis TE, Park JR, Bleakley M, Englund JA, Kane C, Arceci RJ, Guinan E, Smith FO, Luan X, Marr KA. Galactomannan antigen testing for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in pediatric hematology patients. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2012; 1: 103-111. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpids/pis044 PMid:23687575 PMCid:PMC3656552
- Choi SH, Kang ES, Eo H, Yoo SY, Kim JH, Yoo KH, Sung KW, Koo HH, Kim YJ. Aspergillus galactomannan antigen assay and invasive aspergillosis in pediatric cancer patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013; 60: 316-322. https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.24363 PMid:23042761
- Jha AK, Bansal D, Chakrabarti A, Shivaprakash MR, Trehan A, Marwaha RK. Serum galactomannan assay for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in children with haematological malignancies. Mycoses. 2013; 56: 442-448. https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12048 PMid:23369047
- Dinand V, Anjan M, Oberoi JK, , Khanna S, Yadav SP, Wattal C, Sachdeva A. Threshold of galactomannan antigenemia positivity for early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in neutropenic children. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2016; 49: 66-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2013.12.003 PMid:24582464
- Viscoli C, Machetti M, Cappellano P, B Bucci, P Bruzzi, MT Van Lint, A Bacigalupo. False-positive galactomannan platelia Aspergillus test results for patients receiving piperacillin-tazobactam. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 38: 913-916. https://doi.org/10.1086/382224 PMid:14999640
- Aubry A, Porcher R, Bottero J, , Touratier S, Leblanc T, Brethon B, Rousselot P, Raffoux E, Menotti J, Derouin F, Ribaud P, Sulahian A. Occurrence and kinetics of false-positive Aspergillus galactomannan test results following treatment with beta-lactam antibiotics in patients with hematological disorders. J Clin Microbiol 2006; 44: 389-394. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.44.2.389-394.2006 PMid:16455889 PMCid:PMC1392647
- Mennink-Kersten MA, Klont RR, Warris A, Op den Camp HJ, Verweij PE. Bifidobacterium lipoteichoic acid and false ELISA reactivity in Aspergillus antigen detection. Lancet 2004; 363: 325-327. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)15393-7
- Mennink-Kersten MA, Verweij PE. Non-culture-based diagnostics for opportunistic fungi. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2006; 20: 711-727. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idc.2006.06.009 PMid:16984877
- Duarte RF, Sanchez-Ortega I, Cuesta I, Arnan M, Pati-o B, Fernández de Sevilla A, Gudiol C, Ayats J, Cuenca-Estrella M. Serum galactomannan-based early detection of invasive aspergillosis in hematology patients receiving effective antimold prophylaxis. Clin Infect Dis. 2014; 59: 1696-1702. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciu673 PMid:25165088
- Teering S, Verreth A, Peeters A, Van Regenmortel N, De Laet I, Schoonheydt K, Dits H, Van De Vyvere M, Libeer C, Meersseman W, Malbrain ML. Prognostic value of serum galactomannan in mixed icu patients: A retrospective observational study. Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther. 2014; 46: 145-154 https://doi.org/10.5603/AIT.2014.0027 PMid:25078766
- Challier S, Boyer S, Abachin E, Berche P. Development of a serum-based Taqman real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42: 844-846. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.42.2.844-846.2004 PMid:14766869 PMCid:PMC344496
- El-Mahallawy HA, Shaker HH, Ali Helmy H, Mostafa T, Razak Abo-Sedah A. Evaluation of pan-fungal PCR assay and Aspergillus antigen detection in the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in high risk paediatric cancer patients. Med Mycol 2006; 44: 733-739. https://doi.org/10.1080/13693780600939955 PMid:17127630
- Steinbach WJ, Addison RM, McLaughlin L, Gerrald Q, Martin PL, Driscoll T, Bentsen C, Perfect JR, Alexander BD. Prospective Aspergillus galactomannan antigen testing in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2007; 26: 558-564. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3180616cbb PMid:17596794
- Pfeiffer CD, Fine JP, Safdar N. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis using a galactomannan assay: a meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42: 1417-1427. https://doi.org/10.1086/503427 PMid:16619154
- Maertens J, Verhaegen J, Lagrou K, Van Eldere J, Boogaerts M. Screening for circulating galactomannan as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for invasive aspergillosis in prolonged neutropenic patients and stem cell transplantation recipients: A prospective validation. Blood. 2001; 97: 1604-1610. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.V97.6.1604 PMid:11238098
- Hoenigl M, Seeber K, Koidl C, Buzina W, Wölfler A, Duettmann W, Wagner J, Strenger V, Krause R. Sensitivity of galactomannan enzyme immunoassay for diagnosing breakthrough invasive aspergillosis under antifungal prophylaxis and empirical therapy. Mycoses. 2013; 56: 471-476. https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12060 PMid:23432536
- Marr KA, Laverdiere M, Gugel A, Leisenring W. Antifungal therapy decreases sensitivity of the aspergillus galactomannan enzyme immunoassay. Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 40: 1762-1769. https://doi.org/10.1086/429921 PMid:15909264
- Cordonnier C, Botterel F, Ben Amor R, Pautas C, Maury S, Kuentz M, Hicheri Y, Bastuji-Garin S, Bretagne S. Correlation between galactomannan antigen levels in serum and neutrophil counts in haematological patients with invasive aspergillosis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009; 15: 81-86. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2008.02122.x PMid:19154482
- Maertens J, Theunissen K, Verhoef G, Verschakelen J, Lagrou K, Verbeken E, Wilmer A, Verhaegen J, Boogaerts M, Van Eldere J . Galactomannan and computed tomography-based preemptive antifungal therapy in neutropenic patients at high risk for invasive fungal infection: A prospective feasibility study. Clin Infect Dis. 2005; 41: 1242-1250. https://doi.org/10.1086/496927 PMid:16206097
- Guinea J, Jensen J, Peláez T, Gijón P, Alonso R, Rivera M, Mu-oz P, Bouza E. Value of a single galactomannan determination (platelia) for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in non-hematological patients with clinical isolation of aspergillus spp. Med Mycol. 2008; 46: 575-579. https://doi.org/10.1080/13693780801978968 PMid:19180751
- Meersseman W, Lagrou K, Maertens J, Wilmer A, Hermans G, Vanderschueren S, Spriet I, Verbeken E, Van Wijngaerden E. Galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: A tool for diagnosing aspergillosis in intensive care unit patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008; 177: 27-34. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200704-606OC PMid:17885264
- Husain S, Kwak EJ, Obman A, Wagener MM, Kusne S, Stout JE, McCurry KR, Singh N. Prospective assessment of platelia aspergillus galactomannan antigen for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2004; 4: 796-802. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-6143.2004.00415.x PMid:15084177
- Tabarsi P, Soraghi A, Marjani M, Zandian P, Baghaei P, Najafizadeh K, Droudinia A, Sarrafzadeh SA, Javanmard P, Mansouri D. Comparison of serum and bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan in diagnosing invasive aspergillosis in solid-organ transplant recipients. Exp Clin Transplant. 2012; 10: 278-281. https://doi.org/10.6002/ect.2011.0176 PMid:22631066
- Guigue N, Menotti J, Ribaud P. False positive galactomannan test after ice-pop ingestion. N Engl J Med. 2013; 369: 97-98. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1210430 PMid:23822795
- Petraitiene R, Petraitis V, Witt JR, 3rd, Durkin MM, Bacher JD, Wheat LJ, Walsh TJ. Galactomannan antigenemia after infusion of gluconate-containing plasma-lyte. J Clin Microbiol. 2011; 49: 4330-4332. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.05031-11 PMid:21976760 PMCid:PMC3232943
- Martin-Rabadan P, Gijon P, Alonso Fernandez R, Ballesteros M, Anguita J, Bouza E. False-positive aspergillus antigenemia due to blood product conditioning fluids. Clin Infect Dis. 2012; 55: e22-27. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cis493 PMid:22610929
- Mikulska M, Furfaro E, Del Bono V, Raiola AM, Ratto S, Bacigalupo A, Viscoli C. Piperacillin/tazobactam (tazocintm) seems to be no longer responsible for false-positive results of the galactomannan assay. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012; 67: 1746-1748. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dks111 PMid:22499998
- Vergidis P, Walker RC, Kaul DR, Kauffman CA, Freifeld AG, Slagle DC, Kressel AB, Wheat LJ. False-positive aspergillus galactomannan assay in solid organ transplant recipients with histoplasmosis. Transpl Infect Dis. 2012; 14: 213-217. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3062.2011.00675.x PMid:22093368
- Huang YT, Hung CC, Liao CH, Sun HY, Chang SC, Chen YC. Detection of circulating galactomannan in serum samples for diagnosis of penicillium marneffei infection and cryptococcosis among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J Clin Microbiol. 2007; 45: 2858-2862. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00050-07 PMid:17596363 PMCid:PMC2045252
- Nucci M, Carlesse F, Cappellano P, Varon AG1, Seber A2, Garnica M1, Nouér SA1, Colombo AL. Earlier diagnosis of invasive fusariosis with aspergillus serum galactomannan testing. PLoS One. 2014; 9: e87784. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087784 PMid:24489964 PMCid:PMC3905034
- King ST, Stover KR. Considering confounders of the galactomannan index: The role of piperacillin-tazobactam. Clin Infect Dis. 2014; 58: 751-752. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cit783 PMid:24280091
- Chai LY, Kullberg BJ, Johnson EM, Teerenstra S, Khin LW, Vonk AG, Maertens J, Lortholary O, Donnelly PJ, Schlamm HT, Troke PF, Netea MG, Herbrecht R. Early serum galactomannan trend as a predictor of outcome of invasive aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2012; 50: 2330-2336. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.06513-11 PMid:22553232 PMCid:PMC3405588
- Roilides E, Pavlidou E, Papadopoulos F, Panteliadis C, Farmaki E, Tamiolaki M, Sotiriou J. Cerebral aspergillosis in an infant with corticosteroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol 2003; 18: 450–53. PMid:12736806
- Viscoli C, Machetti M, Gazzola P, De Maria A, Paola D, Van Lint MT, Gualandi F, Truini M , and Bacigalupo A. Aspergillus galactomannan antigen in the cerebrospinal fluid of bone marrow transplant recipients with probable cerebral aspergillosis. J Clin Microbiol 2002; 40: 1496-1499. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.40.4.1496-1499.2002 PMid:11923380 PMCid:PMC140329
- Smith PB, Benjamin DK, Jr., Alexander BD, Johnson MD, Finkelman MA, Steinbach WJ. Quantification of 1, 3-beta-d-glucan levels in children: Preliminary data for diagnostic use of the beta-glucan assay in a pediatric setting. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2007; 14: 924-925. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00025-07 PMid:17538119 PMCid:PMC1951061
- Zhao L, Tang JY, Wang Y, Zhou YF, Chen J, Li BR, Xue HL. [value of plasma beta-glucan in early diagnosis of invasive fungal infection in children]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2009; 11: 905-908. PMid:20113658
- Mularoni A, Furfaro E, Faraci M, Franceschi A, Mezzano P, Bandettini R, Viscoli C, Castagnola E. High levels of beta-d-glucan in immunocompromised children with proven invasive fungal disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010; 17: 882-883. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00038-10 PMid:20335432 PMCid:PMC2863371
- Badiee P, Alborzi A, Karimi M, Pourabbas B, Haddadi P, Mardaneh J, Moieni M. Diagnostic potential of nested pcr, galactomannan eia, and beta-d-glucan for invasive aspergillosis in pediatric patients. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2012; 6: 352-357. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.2110 PMid:22505446
- Koltze A, Rath P, Schoning S, Steinmann J, Wichelhaus TA, Bader P, Bochennek K, Lehrnbecher T. Beta-d-glucan screening for detection of invasive fungal disease in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. J Clin Microbiol. 2015; 53: 2605-2610. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00747-15 PMid:26041896 PMCid:PMC4508457
- Ostrosky-Zeichner L, Alexander BD, Kett DH, , Vazquez J, Pappas PG, Saeki F, Ketchum PA, Wingard J, Schiff R, Tamura H, Finkelman MA, Rex JH. Multicenter clinical evaluation of the (1-->3) beta-D-glucan assay as an aid to diagnosis of fungal infections in humans. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 41:654–659. https://doi.org/10.1086/432470 PMid:16080087
- Odabasi Z, Mattiuzzi G, Estey E, Kantarjian H, Saeki F, Ridge RJ, Ketchum PA, Finkelman MA, Rex JH, Ostrosky-Zeichner L. Beta-D-glucan as a diagnostic adjunct for invasive fungal infections: validation, cutoff development, and performance in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39:199–205 https://doi.org/10.1086/421944 PMid:15307029
- De Pauw B, Walsh TJ, Donnelly JP, David A. Stevens, John E. Edwards, Thierry Calandra, Peter G. Pappas, Johan Maertens, Olivier Lortholary, Carol A. Kauffman, David W. Denning, Thomas F. Patterson, Georg Maschmeyer, Jacques Bille, William E. Dismukes, Raoul Herbrecht, William W. Hope, Christopher C. Kibbler, Bart Jan Kullberg, Kieren A. Marr, Patricia Mu-oz, Frank C. Odds, John R. Perfect, Angela Restrepo, Markus Ruhnke, Brahm H. Segal, Jack D. Sobel, Tania C. Sorrell, Claudio Viscoli, John R. Wingard, Theoklis Zaoutis, and John E. Bennett.; European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group. Revised deﬁnitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Grou. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46: 1813–1821 https://doi.org/10.1086/588660 PMid:18462102 PMCid:PMC2671227
- Hummel M, Spiess B, Roder J, von Komorowski G, Dürken M, Kentouche K, Laws HJ, Mörz H, Hehlmann R, Buchheidt D. Detection of Aspergillus DNA by a nested PCR assay is able to improve the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in paediatric patients. J Med Microbiol 2009; 58: 1291-1297. https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.007393-0 PMid:19541789
- Taccone A, Occhi M, Garaventa A, Manfredini L, Viscoli C. Ct of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in children with cancer. Pediatr Radiol. 1993; 23: 177-180. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02013825 PMid:8332402
- Archibald S, Park J, Geyer JR, Hawkins DS. Computed tomography in the evaluation of febrile neutropenic pediatric oncology patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001; 20: 5-10. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-200101000-00002 PMid:11176559
- Neely M, Margol A, Fu X, van Guilder M, Bayard D, Schumitzky A, Orbach R, Liu S, Louie S, Hope W. Achieving target voriconazole concentrations more accurately in children and adolescents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015; 59: 3090-3097. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00032-15 PMid:25779580 PMCid:PMC4432122
- Friberg LE, Ravva P, Karlsson MO, Liu P. Integrated population pharmacokinetic analysis of voriconazole in children, adolescents and adults. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012; 56: 3032-3042. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.05761-11 PMid:22430956 PMCid:PMC3370730
- Gavalda J, Meije Y, Fortun J, Roilides E, Saliba F, Lortholary O, Mu-oz P, Grossi P, Cuenca-Estrella M; ESCMID-ECMM-ERS Study Group for Infections in Compromised Hosts. Invasive fungal infections in solid organ transplant recipients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2014; 20 Suppl 7: 27-48. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-0691.12660 PMid:24810152
- Husain S, Zaldonis D, Kusne S, Kwak EJ, Paterson DL, McCurry KR. Variation in antifungal prophylaxis strategies in lung transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis. 2006; 8: 213-218. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3062.2006.00156.x PMid:17116134
- Hope WW, Castagnola E, Groll AH, Roilides E, Akova M, Arendrup MC, Arikan-Akdagli S, Bassetti M, Bille J, Cornely OA, Cuenca-Estrella M, Donnelly JP, Garbino J, Herbrecht R, Jensen HE, Kullberg BJ, Lass-Flörl C, Lortholary O, Meersseman W, Petrikkos G, Richardson MD, Verweij PE, Viscoli C, Ullmann AJ; ESCMID-ECMM-ERS Fungal Infection Study Group. ESCMID-ECMM-ERS* guideline for the diagnosis and management of candida diseases 2012: prevention and management of invasive infections in neonates and children caused by Candida spp. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012; 18: 38–52. https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-0691.12040 PMid:23137136
- van Burik JA, Ratanatharathorn V, Stepan DE, , Miller CB, Lipton JH, Vesole DH, Bunin N, Wall DA, Hiemenz JW, Satoi Y, Lee JM, Walsh TJ; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. Micafungin versus ﬂuconazole for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections during neutropenia in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39: 1407–16. 48
- Wingard JR, Carter SL, Walsh TJ, Kurtzberg J, Small TN, Baden LR, Gersten ID, Mendizabal AM, Leather HL, Confer DL, Maziarz RT, Stadtmauer EA, Bola-os-Meade J, Brown J, Dipersio JF, Boeckh M, Marr KA; Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network. Randomized, double-blind trial of ﬂuconazole versus voriconazole for prevention of invasive fungal infection after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood 2010; 116: 5111–5118. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-02-268151 PMid:20826719 PMCid:PMC3012532
- Dvorak CC, Fisher BT, Sung L, Steinbach WJ, Nieder M, Alexander S, Zaoutis TE. Antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric hematology/oncology: new choices and new data. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2012; 59: 21–26. https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.23415 PMid:22102607 PMCid:PMC4008331
- Tragiannidis A, Dokos C, Lehrnbecher T, Groll AH. Antifungal chemoprophylaxis in children and adolescents with haematological malignancies and following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: review of the literature and options for clinical practice. Drugs 2012; 72: 685–704. https://doi.org/10.2165/11599810-000000000-00000 PMid:22413762
- Cornely OA, Maertens J, Winston DJ, Perfect J, Ullmann AJ, Walsh TJ, Helfgott D, Holowiecki J, Stockelberg D, Goh YT, Petrini M, Hardalo C, Suresh R, Angulo-Gonzalez D. Posaconazole vs. Fluconazole or itraconazole prophylaxis in patients with neutropenia. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 348-359. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa061094 PMid:17251531
- Ullmann AJ, Lipton JH, Vesole DH, Chandrasekar P, Langston A, Tarantolo SR, Greinix H, Morais de Azevedo W, Reddy V, Boparai N, Pedicone L, Patino H, Durrant S. Posaconazole or fluconazole for prophylaxis in severe graft-versus-host disease. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356: 335-347. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa061098 PMid:17251530
- Ananda-Rajah MR, Grigg A, Downey MT, A Bajel, T Spelman, A Cheng, K T. Thursky, J Vincent,and MA Slavin. Comparative clinical effectiveness of prophylactic voriconazole/posaconazole to fluconazole/itraconazole in patients with acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy over a 12-year period. Haematologica. 2012; 97: 459-463. https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2011.051995 PMid:22058198 PMCid:PMC3291603
- Ananda-Rajah MR, Grigg A, Slavin MA. Making sense of posaconazole therapeutic drug monitoring: A practical approach. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012; 25: 605-611. https://doi.org/10.1097/QCO.0b013e328359a56e PMid:23086185
- Cornely OA, Ullmann AJ. Lack of evidence for exposure-response relationship in the use of posaconazole as prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011; 89: 351-352. https://doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2010.261 PMid:21270787
- Krishna G, Martinho M, Chandrasekar P, Ullmann AJ, Patino H. Pharmacokinetics of oral posaconazole in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with graft-versus-host disease. Pharmacotherapy. 2007; 27: 1627-1636. https://doi.org/10.1592/phco.27.12.1627 PMid:18041883
- Welzen ME, Bruggemann RJ, Van Den Berg JM, Voogt HW, Gilissen JH, Pajkrt D, Klein N, Burger DM, Warris A. A twice daily posaconazole dosing algorithm for children with chronic granulomatous disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011; 30: 794-797. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3182195808 PMid:21772229
- Doring M, Muller C, Johann PD, Erbacher A, Kimmig A, Schwarze CP, Lang P, Handgretinger R, Müller I. Analysis of posaconazole as oral antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric patients under 12 years of age following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. BMC Infect Dis. 2012; 12: 263. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-12-263 PMid:23082876 PMCid:PMC3514296
- Lehrnbecher T, Attarbaschi A, Duerken M, Garbino J, Gruhn B, Kontny U, Lüer S, Phillips R, Scholz J, Wagner HJ, Wiesel T, Groll AH. Posaconazole salvage treatment in paediatric patients: A multicentre survey. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010; 29: 1043-1045. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-010-0957-4 PMid:20495990
- Marks DI, Pagliuca A, Kibbler CC, Glasmacher A, Heussel CP, Kantecki M, Miller PJ, Ribaud P, Schlamm HT, Solano C, Cook G; IMPROVIT Study Group. Voriconazole versus itraconazole for antifungal prophylaxis following allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Br J Haematol. 2011; 155: 318-327. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2011.08838.x PMid:21880032 PMCid:PMC3253339
- Mattiuzzi GN, Cortes J, Alvarado G, Verstovsek S, Koller C, Pierce S, Blamble D, Faderl S, Xiao L, Hernandez M, Kantarjian H. Efficacy and safety of intravenous voriconazole and intravenous itraconazole for antifungal prophylaxis in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome. Support Care Cancer. 2011; 19: 19-26. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-009-0783-3 PMid:19956980
- Barreto JN, Beach CL, Wolf RC, Merten JA, Tosh PK, Wilson JW, Hogan WJ, Litzow MR. The incidence of invasive fungal infections in neutropenic patients with acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes receiving primary antifungal prophylaxis with voriconazole. Am J Hematol. 2013; 88: 283-288. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh.23388 PMid:23460251
- Walsh TJ, Karlsson MO, Driscoll T, Arguedas AG, Adamson P, Saez-Llorens X, Vora AJ, Arrieta AC, Blumer J, Lutsar I, Milligan P, Wood N. Pharmacokinetics and safety of intravenous voriconazole in children after single- or multiple-dose administration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004; 48: 2166-2172. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.48.6.2166-2172.2004 PMid:15155217 PMCid:PMC415618
- Karlsson MO, Lutsar I, Milligan PA. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of voriconazole plasma concentration data from pediatric studies. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009; 53: 935-944. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00751-08 PMid:19075073 PMCid:PMC2650527
- Driscoll TA, Frangoul H, Nemecek ER, Murphey DK, Yu LC, Blumer J, Krance RA, Baruch A, Liu P. Comparison of pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole intravenous-to-oral switch in immunocompromised adolescents and healthy adults. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011; 55: 5780-5789. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.05010-11 PMid:21911570 PMCid:PMC3232803
- Soler-Palacin P, Frick MA, Martin-Nalda A, Lanaspa M, Pou L, Roselló E, de Heredia CD, Figueras C. Voriconazole drug monitoring in the management of invasive fungal infection in immunocompromised children: A prospective study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012; 67: 700-706. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkr517 PMid:22190607
- Pieper S, Kolve H, Gumbinger HG, Goletz G, Wurthwein G, Groll AH. Monitoring of voriconazole plasma concentrations in immunocompromised paediatric patients. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012; 67: 2717-2724. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dks258 PMid:22796890
- Molina JR, Serrano J, Sanchez-Garcia J, Rodríguez-Villa A, Gómez P, Tallón D, Martín V, Rodríguez G, Rojas R, Martín C, Martínez F, Alvarez MA, Torres A. Voriconazole as primary antifungal prophylaxis in children undergoing allo-sct. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2012; 47: 562-567. https://doi.org/10.1038/bmt.2011.111 PMid:21572466
- Troke PF, Hockey HP, Hope WW. Observational study of the clinical efficacy of voriconazole and its relationship to plasma concentrations in patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011; 55: 4782-4788. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01083-10 PMid:21768513 PMCid:PMC3186950
- Park WB, Kim N-H, Kim K-H, Lee SH, Nam WS, Yoon SH, Song KH, Choe PG, Kim NJ, Jang IJ, Oh MD, Yu KS. The effect of therapeutic drug monitoring on safety and efficacy of voriconazole in invasive fungal infections: A randomized controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2012; 55: 1080-1087. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/cis599 PMid:22761409
- Winston DJ, Maziarz RT, Chandrasekar PH, , Lazarus HM, Goldman M, Blumer JL, Leitz GJ, Territo MC. Intravenous and oral itraconazole versus intravenous and oral fluconazole for long-term antifungal prophylaxis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant recipients. A multicenter, randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2003; 138: 705-713. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-138-9-200305060-00006 PMid:12729424
- Marr KA, Crippa F, Leisenring W, Hoyle M, Boeckh M, Balajee SA, Nichols WG, Musher B, Corey L. Itraconazole versus fluconazole for prevention of fungal infections in patients receiving allogeneic stem cell transplants. Blood. 2004; 103: 1527-1533. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2003-08-2644 PMid:14525770
- Marr KA, Leisenring W, Crippa F, Slattery JT, Corey L, Boeckh M, McDonald GB. Cyclophosphamide metabolism is affected by azole antifungals. Blood. 2004; 103: 1557-1559. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2003-07-2512 PMid:14504090
- Menichetti F, Del Favero A, Martino P, , Bucaneve G, Micozzi A, Girmenia C, Barbabietola G, Pagańo L, Leoni P, Specchia G, Caiozzo A, Raimondi R, Mandelli F. Itraconazole oral solution as prophylaxis for fungal infections in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial. Gimema infection program. Gruppo italiano malattie ematologiche dell' adulto. Clin Infect Dis. 1999; 28: 250-255. https://doi.org/10.1086/515129 PMid:10064240
- Prentice HG, Caillot D, Dupont B, Menichetti F, Schuler U. Oral and intravenous itraconazole for systemic fungal infections in neutropenic haematological patients: Meeting report. London, united kingdom, 20 june 1998. Acta Haematol. 1999; 101: 56-62. https://doi.org/10.1159/000040923 PMid:10085441
- Harousseau JL, Dekker AW, Stamatoullas-Bastard A, Fassas A, Linkesch W, Gouveia J, De Bock R, Rovira M, Seifert WF, Joosen H, Peeters M, De Beule K. Itraconazole oral solution for primary prophylaxis of fungal infections in patients with hematological malignancy and profound neutropenia: A randomized, double-blind, double-placebo, multicenter trial comparing itraconazole and amphotericin b. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000; 44: 1887-1893. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.44.7.1887-1893.2000 PMid:10858349 PMCid:PMC89980
- Gallin JI, Alling DW, Malech HL, Wesley R, Koziol D, Marciano B, Eisenstein EM, Turner ML, DeCarlo ES, Starling JM, Holland SM. Itraconazole to prevent fungal infections in chronic granulomatous disease. N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 2416-2422. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa021931 PMid:12802027
- de Repentigny L, Ratelle J, Leclerc JM, Cornu G, Sokal EM, Jacqmin P, De Beule K. Repeated-dose pharmacokinetics of an oral solution of itraconazole in infants and children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998; 42: 404-408. PMid:9527794 PMCid:PMC105422
- Groll AH, Wood L, Roden M, Mickiene D, Chiou CC, Townley E, Dad L, Piscitelli SC, Walsh TJ. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of cyclodextrin itraconazole in pediatric patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002; 46: 2554-2563. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.46.8.2554-2563.2002 PMid:12121932 PMCid:PMC127364
- Foot AB, Veys PA, Gibson BE. Itraconazole oral solution as antifungal prophylaxis in children undergoing stem cell transplantation or intensive chemotherapy for haematological disorders. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1999; 24: 1089-1093. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bmt.1702023 PMid:10578159
- Simon A, Besuden M, Vezmar S, Hasan C, Lampe D, Kreutzberg S, Glasmacher A, Bode U, Fleischhack G . Itraconazole prophylaxis in pediatric cancer patients receiving conventional chemotherapy or autologous stem cell transplants. Support Care Cancer. 2007; 15: 213-220. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00520-006-0125-7 PMid:16944217
- Glasmacher A, Hahn C, Molitor E, Marklein G, Sauerbruch T, Schmidt-Wolf I. Itraconazole trough concentrations in antifungal prophylaxis with six different dosing regimens using hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin oral solution or coated-pellet capsules. Mycoses. 1999; 42: 591-600. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0507.1999.00518.x PMid:10680434
- Tollemar J, Ringden O, Andersson S, Sundberg B, Ljungman P, Sparrelid E, Tydén G. Prophylactic use of liposomal amphotericin b (ambisome) against fungal infections: A randomized trial in bone marrow transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 1993; 25: 1495-1497. PMid:8442163
- Tollemar J, Ringden O, Andersson S, Sundberg B, Ljungman P, Tyden G. Randomized double-blind study of liposomal amphotericin b (ambisome) prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in bone marrow transplant recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1993; 12: 577-582. PMid:8136741
- Kelsey SM, Goldman JM, McCann S, Newland AC, Scarffe JH, Oppenheim BA, Mufti GJ.. Liposomal amphotericin (ambisome) in the prophylaxis of fungal infections in neutropenic patients: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1999; 23: 163-168. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bmt.1701543 PMid:10197802
- Penack O, Schwartz S, Martus P, Reinwald M, Schmidt-Hieber M, Thiel E, Blau IW. Low-dose liposomal amphotericin b in the prevention of invasive fungal infections in patients with prolonged neutropenia: Results from a randomized, single-center trial. Ann Oncol. 2006; 17: 1306-1312. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdl128 PMid:16766594
- Hong Y, Shaw PJ, Nath CE, , Yadav SP, Stephen KR, Earl JW, McLachlan AJ.. Population pharmacokinetics of liposomal amphotericin b in pediatric patients with malignant diseases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006; 50: 935-942. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.50.3.935-942.2006 PMid:16495254 PMCid:PMC1426421
- Ringden O, Meunier F, Tollemar J, Ricci P, Tura S, Kuse E, Viviani MA, Gorin NC, Klastersky J, Fenaux P. Efficacy of amphotericin b encapsulated in liposomes (ambisome) in the treatment of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1991; 28 Suppl B: 73-82.
- Kolve H, Ahlke E, Fegeler W, Ritter J, Jurgens H, Groll AH. Safety, tolerance and outcome of treatment with liposomal amphotericin b in paediatric patients with cancer or undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009; 64: 383-387. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkp196 PMid:19491205
- Huang X, Chen H, Han M, Zou P, Wu D, Lai Y, Huang H, Chen X, Liu T, Zhu H, Wang J, Hu J . Multicenter, randomized, open-label study comparing the efficacy and safety of micafungin versus itraconazole for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012; 18: 1509-1516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2012.03.014 PMid:22469884
- Seibel NL, Schwartz C, Arrieta A, Flynn P, Shad A, Albano E, Keirns J, Lau WM, Facklam DP, Buell DN, Walsh TJ. Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of micafungin (fk463) in febrile neutropenic pediatric patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005; 49: 3317-3324. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.49.8.3317-3324.2005 PMid:16048942 PMCid:PMC1196271
- Hope WW, Seibel NL, Schwartz CL, , Arrieta A, Flynn P, Shad A, Albano E, Keirns JJ, Buell DN, Gumbo T, Drusano GL, Walsh TJ. Population pharmacokinetics of micafungin in pediatric patients and implications for antifungal dosing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007; 51: 3714-3719. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00398-07 PMid:17638696 PMCid:PMC2043253
- Arrieta AC, Maddison P, Groll AH. Safety of micafungin in pediatric clinical trials. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011; 30: e97-e102. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3182127eaf PMid:21378595
- Mehta PA, Vinks AA, Filipovich A, , Bleesing J, Jodele S, Jordan MB, Marsh R, Tarin R, Edwards S, Fearing D, Lawrence J, Davies SM. Alternate-day micafungin antifungal prophylaxis in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A pharmacokinetic study. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010; 16: 1458-1462. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.05.002 PMid:20546908
- Beaute J, Obenga G, Le Mignot L, Mahlaoui N, Bougnoux ME, Mouy R, Gougerot-Pocidalo MA, Barlogis V, Suarez F, Lanternier F, Hermine O, Lecuit M, Blanche S, Fischer A, Lortholary O; French PID Study Group CEREDIH . Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal diseases in patients with chronic granulomatous disease: A multicenter study in france. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011; 30: 57-62. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3181f13b23 PMid:20700078
- Mouy R, Veber F, Blanche S, Donadieu J, Brauner R, Levron JC, Griscelli C, Fischer A.. Long-term itraconazole prophylaxis against aspergillus infections in thirty-two patients with chronic granulomatous disease. J Pediatr. 1994; 125: 998-1003. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(05)82023-2
- Lestner JM, Smith PB, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Benjamin DK Jr, Hope WW. Antifungal agents and therapy for infants and children with invasive fungal infections: a pharmacological perspective. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2013; 75: 1381–95. 5
- Herbrecht R, Flückiger U, Gachot B, Ribaud P, Tiebaut A, Cordonnier C. Treatment of invasive candida and invasive aspergillus infections in adult haematological patients. Eur J Cancer 2007; 5:49–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcsup.2007.06.007
- Maertens J, Marchetti O, Herbrecht R, Cornely OA, Flückiger U, Frêre P, Gachot B, Heinz WJ, Lass-Flörl C, Ribaud P, Thiebaut A, Cordonnier C; Third European Conference on Infections in Leukemia. European guidelines for antifungal management in leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: summary of the ECIL 3—2009 update. Bone Marrow Transplant 2011; 46: 709–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/bmt.2010.175 PMid:20661235
- Jang SH, Colangelo PM, Gobburu JV. Exposure-response of posaconazole used for prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections: evaluating the need to adjust doses based on drug concentrations in plasma. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2010; 88: 115–119. https://doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2010.64 PMid:20505665
- Groll AH, Tragiannidis A. Update on antifungal agents for paediatric patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 1343–53 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03334.x PMid:20678177
- Sung L, Phillips R, Lehrnbecher T. Time for paediatric febrile neutropenia guidelines—children are not little adults. Eur J Cancer 2011; 47: 811–813 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2011.01.021 PMid:21371884
- Allinson K, Kolve H, Gumbinger HG, Vormoor HJ, Ehlert K, Groll AH. Secondary antifungal prophylaxis in paediatric allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell recipients. J Antimicrob Chemother 2008; 61: 734–742. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkm521 PMid:18238891
- Cordonnier C, Rovira M, Maertens J, Olavarria E, Faucher C, Bilger K, Pigneux A, Cornely OA, Ullmann AJ, Bofarull RM, de la Cámara R, Weisser M, Liakopoulou E, Abecasis M, Heussel CP, Pineau M, Ljungman P, Einsele H; Voriconazole for Secondary Prophylaxis of Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients With Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplants (VOSIFI) study group; Infectious Diseases Working Party, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Voriconazole for secondary prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: results of the VOSIFI study. Haematologica 2010; 95: 1762–1768. https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2009.020073 PMid:20634495 PMCid:PMC2948103
- McNeil MM, Nash SL, Hajjeh RA, Phelan MA, Conn LA, Plikaytis BD, Warnock DW. Trends in mortality due to invasive mycotic diseases in the United States, 1980–1997. Clin Infect Dis. 2001; 33: 641–647. https://doi.org/10.1086/322606 PMid:11486286
- Edmond MB, Wallace SE, McClish DK, Pfaller MA, Jones RN, Wenzel RP. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in United States hospitals: a three-year analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 1999; 29: 239–244. https://doi.org/10.1086/520192 PMid:10476719
- Sung L, Lange BJ, Gerbing RB, Alonzo TA, Feusner J. Microbiologically documented infections and infection-related mortality in children with acute myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2007;110:3532–3539 https://doi.org/10.1182/blood-2007-05-091942 PMid:17660380
- Walsh TJ, Driscoll T, Milligan PA, Wood ND, Schlamm H, Groll AH, Jafri H, Arrieta AC, Klein NJ, Lutsar I. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of voriconazole in immunocompromised children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010; 54:4116–4123. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00896-10 PMid:20660687 PMCid:PMC2944563
- Walsh TJ, Adamson PC, Seibel NL, , Flynn PM, Neely MN, Schwartz C, Shad A, Kaplan SL, Roden MM, Stone JA, Miller A, Bradshaw SK, Li SX, Sable CA, Kartsonis NA. Pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of caspofungin in children and adolescents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005; 49:4536–4545. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.49.11.4536-4545.2005 PMid:16251293 PMCid:PMC1280172
- Benjamin DKJ, Driscoll T, Seibel NL, Gonzalez CE, Roden MM, Kilaru R, Clark K, Dowell JA, Schranz J, Walsh TJ. Safety and pharmacokinetics of intravenous anidulafungin in children with neutropenia at high risk for invasive fungal infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006; 50:632–638. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.50.2.632-638.2006 PMid:16436720 PMCid:PMC1366891
- Caillot D, Thiébaut A, Herbrecht R, , de Botton S, Pigneux A, Bernard F, Larché J, Monchecourt F, Alfandari S, Mahi L. Liposomal amphotericin B in combination with caspofungin for invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies: a randomized pilot study (Combistrat trial). Cancer 2007; 110: 2740–2746. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.23109 PMid:17941026
- Marr KA, Boeckh M, Carter RA, Kim HW, Corey L. Combination antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39: 797–802. https://doi.org/10.1086/423380 PMid:15472810
- Denning DW, Ribaud P, Milpied N, Caillot D, Herbrecht R, Thiel E, Haas A, Ruhnke M, Lode H. Efficacy and safety of voriconazole in the treatment of acute invasive aspergillosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2002; 34: 563-571. https://doi.org/10.1086/324620 PMid:11807679
- Fortun J, Martin-Davila P, Sanchez MA, Pintado V, Alvarez ME, Sánchez-Sousa A, Moreno S. Voriconazole in the treatment of invasive mold infections in transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003; 22: 408-413. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10096-003-0960-0 PMid:12827536
- Wieland T, Liebold A, Jagiello M, Retzl G, Birnbaum DE. Superiority of voriconazole over amphotericin b in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis after heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2005; 24: 102-104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2003.10.014 PMid:15653389
- Veroux M, Corona D, Gagliano M, Sorbello M, Macarone M, Cutuli M, Giuffrida G, Morello G, Paratore A, Veroux P. Voriconazole in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis in kidney transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2007; 39: 1838-1840. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2007.05.012 PMid:17692627
- Doby EH, Benjamin DK, Jr., Blaschke AJ, Ward RM, Pavia AT, Martin PL, Driscoll TA, Cohen-Wolkowiez M, Moran C.Therapeutic monitoring of voriconazole in children less than three years of age: A case report and summary of voriconazole concentrations for ten children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012; 31: 632-635. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e31824acc33 PMid:22301479 PMCid:PMC3356483
- Bartelink IH, Wolfs T, Jonker M, de Waal M, Egberts TC, Ververs TT, Boelens JJ, Bierings M. Highly variable plasma concentrations of voriconazole in pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013; 57: 235-240. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01540-12 PMid:23114771 PMCid:PMC3535953
- Kotwani RN, Gokhale PC, Bodhe PV, Kirodian BG, Kshirsagar NA, Pandya SK. A comparative study of plasma concentrations of liposomal amphotericin b (l-amp-lrc-1) in adults, children and neonates. Int J Pharm. 2002; 238: 11-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-5173(02)00066-2
- Bochennek K, Tramsen L, Schedler N, et al. Liposomal amphotericin b twice weekly as antifungal prophylaxis in paediatric haematological malignancy patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011; 17: 1868-1874. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2011.03483.x PMid:21895857
- Groll AH, Silling G, Young C, , Schwerdtfeger R, Ostermann H, Heinz WJ, Gerss J, Kolve H, Lanvers-Kaminsky C, Vieira Pinheiro JP, Gammelin S, Cornely OA, Wuerthwein G. Randomized comparison of safety and pharmacokinetics of caspofungin, liposomal amphotericin b, and the combination of both in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell recipients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010; 54: 4143-4149. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00425-10 PMid:20660670 PMCid:PMC2944616
- K, Tsukimoto I, Tsunematsu Y, Honda M, Iwai N, Maniwa T, Haigo H, Suzuki K, Mori T. . Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of liposomal amphotericin b (l-amb) in children. J Infect Chemother. 2012; 18: 456-465. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10156-011-0357-4 PMid:22286407
- Herbrecht R, Maertens J, Baila L, Aoun M, Heinz W, Martino R, Schwartz S, Ullmann AJ, Meert L, Paesmans M, Marchetti O, Akan H, Ameye L, Shivaprakash M, Viscoli C. Caspofungin first-line therapy for invasive aspergillosis in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients: An european organisation for research and treatment of cancer study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2010; 45: 1227-1233. https://doi.org/10.1038/bmt.2009.334 PMid:20062093
- Viscoli C, Herbrecht R, Akan H, Baila L, Sonet A, Gallamini A, Giagounidis A, Marchetti O, Martino R, Meert L, Paesmans M, Ameye L, Shivaprakash M, Ullmann AJ, Maertens J; Infectious Disease Group of the EORTC. An eortc phase ii study of caspofungin as first-line therapy of invasive aspergillosis in haematological patients. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009; 64: 1274-1281. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkp355 PMid:19841031
- Cornely OA, Vehreschild JJ, Vehreschild MJ, Würthwein G, Arenz D, Schwartz S, Heussel CP, Silling G, Mahne M, Franklin J, Harnischmacher U, Wilkens A, Farowski F, Karthaus M, Lehrnbecher T, Ullmann AJ, Hallek M, Groll AH. Phase ii dose escalation study of caspofungin for invasive aspergillosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011; 55: 5798-5803. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.05134-11 PMid:21911573 PMCid:PMC3232774
- Groetzner J, Kaczmarek I, Wittwer T, Strauch J, Meiser B, Wahlers T, Daebritz S, Reichart B. Caspofungin as first-line therapy for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis after thoracic organ transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2008; 27: 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2007.10.002 PMid:18187079
- Winkler M, Pratschke J, Schulz U, Zheng S, Zhang M, Li W, Lu M, Sgarabotto D, Sganga G, Kaskel P, Chandwani S, Ma L, Petrovic J, Shivaprakash M .Caspofungin for post solid organ transplant invasive fungal disease: Results of a retrospective observational study. Transpl Infect Dis. 2010; 12: 230-237. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-3062.2009.00490.x PMid:20070619 PMCid:PMC2904899
- Neely M, Jafri HS, Seibel N, Knapp K, Adamson PC, Bradshaw SK, Strohmaier KM, Sun P, Bi S, Dockendorf MF, Stone JA, Kartsonis NA. Pharmacokinetics and safety of caspofungin in older infants and toddlers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009; 53: 1450-1456. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01027-08 PMid:19114680 PMCid:PMC2663098
- Cesaro S, Giacchino M, Locatelli F, , Spiller M, Buldini B, Castellini C, Caselli D, Giraldi E, Tucci F, Tridello G, Rossi MR, Castagnola E. Safety and efficacy of a caspofungin-based combination therapy for treatment of proven or probable aspergillosis in pediatric hematological patients. BMC Infect Dis. 2007; 7: 28. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-7-28 PMid:17442100 PMCid:PMC1871594
- Zaoutis T, Lehrnbecher T, Groll AH, Steinbach WJ, Jafri HS, Maertens J, Ngai AL, Chow JW, Taylor AF, Strohmaier KM, Bourque M, Bradshaw SK, Petrecz M, Kartsonis NA. Safety experience with caspofungin in pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009; 28: 1132-1135. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3181af5a15 PMid:19779392
- Zaoutis TE, Jafri HS, Huang LM, Locatelli F, Barzilai A, Ebell W, Steinbach WJ, Bradley J, Lieberman JM, Hsiao CC, Seibel N, Laws HJ, Gamba M, Petrecz M, Taylor AF, Strohmaier KM, Chow JW, Kartsonis NA, Ngai AL. A prospective, multicenter study of caspofungin for the treatment of documented candida or aspergillus infections in pediatric patients. Pediatrics. 2009; 123: 877-884. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-1158 PMid:19255017
- Ngai AL, Bourque MR, Lupinacci RJ, Strohmaier KM, Kartsonis NA. Overview of safety experience with caspofungin in clinical trials conducted over the first 15 years: A brief report. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011; 38: 540-544. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.07.008 PMid:21925846
- Marr KAS, Rottinghaus H, Jagannatha S, H Jagannatha, E J. Bow, JR. Wingard, P Pappas, RHerbrecht, TJ. Walsh, J Maertens and the Mycoses Study Group. A randomised, double-blind study of combination antifungal therapy with voriconazole and anidalafungin versus voriconazole monotherapy for primary treatment of invasive aspergillosis. 22nd European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID); London, UK; March 31–April 3, 2012. Abstract LB2812.
- Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, Gibbs DL, Newell VA, Ellis D, Tullio V, Rodloff A, Fu W, Ling TA; Global Antifungal Surveillance Group. Results from the ARTEMIS DISK Global Antifungal Surveillance Study, 1997 to 2007: a 10.5-year analysis of susceptibilities of Candida species to ﬂuconazole and voriconazole as determined by CLSI standardized disk diﬀ usion. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48: 1366–1377. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02117-09 PMid:20164282 PMCid:PMC2849609
- Maertens J, Glasmacher A, Herbrecht R, Thiebaut A, Cordonnier C, Segal BH, Killar J, Taylor A, Kartsonis N, Patterson TF, Aoun M, Caillot D, Sable C; Caspofungin Combination Therapy Study Group. Multicenter, noncomparative study of caspofungin in combination with other antifungals as salvage therapy in adults with invasive aspergillosis. Cancer 2006; 107: 2888–2897. https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22348 PMid:17103444
- Glasmacher A, Hahn C, Leutner C, Molitor E, Wardelmann E, Losem C, Sauerbruch T, Marklein G, Schmidt-Wolf IG. Breakthrough invasive fungal infections in neutropenic patients after prophylaxis with itraconazole. Mycoses. 1999; 42: 443-451. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0507.1999.00505.x PMid:10546485
- Trifilio S, Singhal S, Williams S, Frankfurt O, Gordon L, Evens A, Winter J, Tallman M, Pi J, Mehta J . Breakthrough fungal infections after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients on prophylactic voriconazole. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007; 40: 451-456. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bmt.1705754 PMid:17589527
- Walsh TJ, Raad I, Patterson TF, Chandrasekar P, Donowitz GR, Graybill R, Greene RE, Hachem R, Hadley S, Herbrecht R, Langston A, Louie A, Ribaud P, Segal BH, Stevens DA, van Burik JA, White CS, Corcoran G, Gogate J, Krishna G, Pedicone L, Hardalo C, Perfect JR. Treatment of invasive aspergillosis with posaconazole in patients who are refractory to or intolerant of conventional therapy: An externally controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 44: 2-12. https://doi.org/10.1086/508774 PMid:17143808
- Denning DW, Marr KA, Lau WM, Facklam DP, Ratanatharathorn V, Becker C, Ullmann AJ, Seibel NL, Flynn PM, van Burik JA, Buell DN, Patterson TF. Micafungin (FK463), alone or in combination with other systemic antifungal agents, for the treatment of acute invasive aspergillosis. J Infect 2006; 53:337–349. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2006.03.003 PMid:16678903
- Herbrecht R, Denning DW, Patterson TF, Bennett JE, Greene RE, Oestmann JW, Kern WV, Marr KA, Ribaud P, Lortholary O, Sylvester R, Rubin RH, Wingard JR, Stark P, Durand C, Caillot D, Thiel E, Chandrasekar PH, Hodges MR, Schlamm HT, Troke PF, de Pauw B; Invasive Fungal Infections Group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer and the Global Aspergillus Study Group. Voriconazole versus amphotericin b for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347: 408-415. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa020191 PMid:12167683
- Walsh TJ, Lutsar I, Driscoll T, Dupont B, Roden M, Ghahramani P, Hodges M, Groll AH, Perfect JR. Voriconazole in the treatment of aspergillosis, scedosporiosis and other invasive fungal infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002; 21: 240-248. https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-200203000-00015 PMid:12005089
- Maertens J, Raad I, Petrikkos G, Boogaerts M, Selleslag D, Petersen FB, Sable CA, Kartsonis NA, Ngai A, Taylor A, Patterson TF, Denning DW, Walsh TJ; Caspofungin Salvage Aspergillosis Study Group. Efficacy and safety of caspofungin for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of conventional antifungal therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2004; 39: 1563-1571. https://doi.org/10.1086/423381 PMid:15578352
- Cornely OA, Maertens J, Bresnik M, Ebrahimi R, Ullmann AJ, Bouza E, Heussel CP, Lortholary O, Rieger C, Boehme A, Aoun M, Horst HA, Thiebaut A, Ruhnke M, Reichert D, Vianelli N, Krause SW, Olavarria E, Herbrecht R; AmBiLoad Trial Study Group. Liposomal amphotericin b as initial therapy for invasive mold infection: A randomized trial comparing a high-loading dose regimen with standard dosing (ambiload trial). Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 44: 1289-1297. https://doi.org/10.1086/514341 PMid:17443465
- Raad, II, Hanna HA, Boktour M, Jiang Y, Torres HA, Afif C, Kontoyiannis DP, Hachem RY . Novel antifungal agents as salvage therapy for invasive aspergillosis in patients with hematologic malignancies: Posaconazole compared with high-dose lipid formulations of amphotericin b alone or in combination with caspofungin. Leukemia. 2008; 22: 496-503. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.leu.2405065 PMid:18094720
- Cornely OA, Maertens J, Bresnik M, Ullmann AJ, Ebrahimi R, Herbrecht R. Treatment outcome of invasive mould disease after sequential exposure to azoles and liposomal amphotericin b. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010; 65: 114-117. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkp397 PMid:19887460
- Winston DJ, Bartoni K, Territo MC, Schiller GJ. Efficacy, safety, and breakthrough infections associated with standard long-term posaconazole antifungal prophylaxis in allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2011; 17: 507-515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2010.04.017 PMid:20460163
- De la Serna J, Jarque I, Lopez-Jimenez J, Vallejo C. Treatment of invasive fungal infections in high risk hematological patients. The outcome with liposomal amphotericin b is not negatively affected by prior administration of mold-active azoles. Rev Esp Quimioter. 2013; 26: 64-69. PMid:23546466
- Auberger J, Lass-Florl C, Aigner M, Clausen J, Gastl G, Nachbaur D. Invasive fungal breakthrough infections, fungal colonization and emergence of resistant strains in high-risk patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole: Real-life data from a single-centre institutional retrospective observational study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012; 67: 2268-2273. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dks189 PMid:22653819
- Maertens J, Raad I, Petrikkos G, Boogaerts M, Selleslag D, Petersen FB, Sable CA, Kartsonis NA, Ngai A, Taylor A, Patterson TF, Denning DW, Walsh TJ; Caspofungin Salvage Aspergillosis Study Group. Efficacy and safety of caspofungin for treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients refractory to or intolerant of conventional antifungal therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39:1563–1571. https://doi.org/10.1086/423381 PMid:15578352
- Perfect JR, Marr KA, Walsh TJ, Greenberg RN, DuPont B, de la Torre-Cisneros J, Just-Nübling G, Schlamm HT, Lutsar I, Espinel-Ingroff A, Johnson E. Voriconazole treatment for less-common, emerging, or refractory fungal infections. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36:1122–31. https://doi.org/10.1086/374557 PMid:12715306
- Ng TT, Denning DW. Liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) therapy in invasive fungal infections. Evaluation of United Kingdom compassionate use data. Arch Intern Med 1995; 155:1093–1098. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.1995.00430100129015
- Walsh TJ, Hiemenz JW, Seibel NL, Perfect JR, Horwith G, Lee L, Silber JL, DiNubile MJ, Reboli A, Bow E, Lister J, Anaissie EJ. Amphotericin B lipid complex for invasive fungal infections: analysis of safety and efficacy in 556 cases. Clin Infect Dis 1998; 26:1383–1396. https://doi.org/10.1086/516353 PMid:9636868
- Prentice HG, Hann IM, Herbrecht R, ,Aoun M, Kvaloy S, Catovsky D, Pinkerton CR, Schey SA, Jacobs F, Oakhill A, Stevens RF, Darbyshire PJ, Gibson BE. A randomized comparison of liposomal versus conventional amphotericin b for the treatment of pyrexia of unknown origin in neutropenic patients. Br J Haematol. 1997; 98: 711-718. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2141.1997.2473063.x PMid:9332329
- Maertens JA, Madero L, Reilly AF, Lehrnbecher T, Groll AH, Jafri HS, Green M, Nania JJ, Bourque MR, Wise BA, Strohmaier KM, Taylor AF, Kartsonis NA, Chow JW, Arndt CA, DePauw BE, Walsh TJ; Caspofungin Pediatric Study Group. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter study of caspofungin versus liposomal amphotericin b for empiric antifungal therapy in pediatric patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010; 29: 415-420. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3181da2171 PMid:20431381
- Caselli D, Paolicchi O. Empiric antibiotic therapy in a child with cancer and suspected septicemia. Pediatr Rep. 2012; 4: e2. https://doi.org/10.4081/pr.2012.e2 PMid:22690308 PMCid:PMC3357615
- Cordonnier C, Pautas C, Maury S, Vekhoff A, Farhat H, Suarez F, Dhédin N, Isnard F, Ades L, Kuhnowski F, Foulet F, Kuentz M, Maison P, Bretagne S, Schwarzinger M. .Empirical versus preemptive antifungal therapy for high-risk, febrile, neutropenic patients: A randomized, controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 48: 1042-1051. https://doi.org/10.1086/597395 PMid:19281327
- Girmenia C, Micozzi A, Gentile G, Santilli S, Arleo E, Cardarelli L, Capria S, Minotti C, Cartoni C, Brocchieri S, Guerrisi V, Meloni G, Foà R, Martino P. Clinically driven diagnostic antifungal approach in neutropenic patients: A prospective feasibility study. J Clin Oncol. 2010; 28: 667-674. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2009.21.8032 PMid:19841328
- Tan BH, Low JG, Chlebicka NL, Kurup A, Cheah FK, Lin RT, Goh YT, Wong GC. Galactomannan-guided preemptive vs. Empirical antifungals in the persistently febrile neutropenic patient: A prospective randomized study. Int J Infect Dis. 2011; 15: e350-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2011.01.011 PMid:21397541
- Castagnola E, Bagnasco F, Amoroso L, Caviglia I, Caruso S, Faraci M, Calvillo M, Moroni C, Bandettini R, Cangemi G, Magnano GM, Buffa P, Moscatelli A, Haupt R. Role of management strategies in reducing mortality from invasive fungal disease in children with cancer or receiving hemopoietic stem cell transplant: A single center 30-year experience. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014; 33: 233-237. https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000101 PMid:24136371
- Freifeld AG, Bow EJ, Sepkowitz KA, Boeckh MJ, Ito JI, Mullen CA, Raad II, Rolston KV, Young JA, Wingard JR; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical practice guideline for the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer: 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52: 427–431. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciq147 PMid:21205990