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SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Liver injury; Viral invasion; Biochemical indicator
A large number of studies have shown that patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have different degrees of liver injury. However, the mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) invasion into the liver are still not fully understood. This review mainly summarizes the recently published works on the abnormal liver biochemical indicators and the mechanism of viral invasion with liver injury in COVID-19 patients. Generally, SARS-CoV-2 infection of the liver was caused by blood circulation or retrograde infection of digestive tract, which led to the liver injury through direct cytopathic effect induced by virus or immunopathological effect caused by excessive inflammation. Besides these, hypoxia, endothelial injury and drug-induced jury were also the main reasons of liver injury in COVID-19 patients. In the liver function indicators, elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels with reduced albumin levels were observed in COVID-19 patients.
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