COVID-19 IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENT: CHARACTERISTICS AND SPECIFICITIES IN IMMUNOCOMPETENT AND ONCOHEMATOLOGICAL PATIENTS COVID-19 IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENT.

Main Article Content

Federico Mercolini https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9932-1944
Simone Cesaro https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8698-9547

Keywords

COVID 19, SARS-CoV-2 infection, Coronavirus, pediatric, pediatric malignancy

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic affected less children and adolescents, morbidity and mortality figures being inferior to that reported for adults. In this review we focused on the clinical course, risk factors for severe COVID-19, mortality, treatment options and prevention measures in the pediatric and adolescent setting with special attention to the pediatric oncohematological patients. In this subgroups of patients, SARS-CoV-2 infection was often asyntomatic but 47 to 68% of patients require hospitalization and 9-10% of those hospitalized needed intensive care with a COVID-19 attributable mortality of about 4%. The multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated to Coronavirus 2019 was less frequent than that reported in the non-oncohematological pediatric population. Noteworthy, the course of COVID-19 was more severe in low-middle income countries. The key measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection are the reduction of patients exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 and vaccination, now available fore care givers and parents and for patients and siblings > 12 years old. The treatment of COVID-19 in pediatric patients was mainly based on supportive care with dexamethasone and heparin prophylaxis for severely ill patients. Other measures, such as convalescent plasma, remdesivir and monoclonal antibodies have been used in limited case or within experimental protocols. Further studies are needed on the risk factors and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pediatric immunocompromised patients. 

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