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COVID-19, endothelial biomarkers, one-year follow-up, cardiovascular sequaele
Background: COVID-19 is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and is presumed to have long-term cardiovascular sequelae. In this study, we aimed to explore the serum levels of endothelial biomarkers of COVID-19 recovers 1-year after hospital discharge.
Methods: A clinical follow-up study, including 345 COVID-19 survivors from Huanggang, Hubei, and 119 age and gender matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. A standardized symptom questionnaire, electrocardiogram and Doppler ultrasound of lower extremities, routine blood tests, biochemical and immunological tests were collected, and serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), P-selectin, and fractalkine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.
Results: 1-year after discharge, 39% of recovers possessed post-COVID syndromes, while no deep vein thrombosis was detected in all screened. No significant differences in circulatory inflammatory markers (leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6), alanine aminotransferase, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and D-dimer observed among controls and previously mild or severe infected. Furthermore, serum levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, P-selectin, and fractalkine presented no significant differences between survivors and healthy controls.
Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection may not impose a higher risk of long-term cardiovascular sequelae, even for those recovered from severe illness.
KEYWORDS: COVID, ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION, INFLAMMATORY MARKERS, ADHESION MOLECULES, THROMBOSIS.
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