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children, DIC, infection, mortality
Background: Several disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) scoring systems are used for prognosticating the clinical outcomes of patients with DIC. However, research on children is scarce. This study compared the clinical outcomes of overt and non-overt DIC using the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) DIC scoring system.
Methods: This retrospective study reviewed data on children aged 1 month to 15 years diagnosed with DIC between 2003 and 2014.
Results: Of 244 patients, 179 (73.4%) had overt DIC, and 65 (26.6%) had non-overt DIC. The most common causes were infection (84.8%), tissue injury (7%), and malignancies (2.9%). The 28-day case fatality rate was significantly higher for overt than non-overt DIC (76% vs 15.6%; P < 0.001). DIC scores were significantly associated with mortality (R2 = 0.89). Each clinical parameter (platelet count, prothrombin time, and fibrin degradation products) was associated with mortality (P = 0.01). On multivariable analysis, the factors associated with death were platelet counts ≤ 50 000 cells/mm3 (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.08–5.42; P = 0.031); overt DIC score (OR, 7.62; 95% CI, 2.94–19.75; P < 0.001); renal dysfunction (OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.34–6.37; P = 0.007); shock (OR, 39.62; 95% CI, 4.99–314.84; P = 0.001); and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR, 25.90; 95% CI, 3.12–214.80; P = 0.003).
Conclusions: The 28-day case-fatality rate was significantly higher for patients with overt than non-overt DIC and concordant with ISTH scores. ISTH DIC scores can be used as a clinical predictor for DIC in children.
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