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Background: There is limited data regarding Tuberculosis in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), especially in endemic countries.
Objectives: We aimed to describe the density incidence rate and standard incidence ratios
(SIR) of tuberculosis in matched unrelated allo-HSCT.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all patients who underwent
Matched unrelated allo-HSCT from 2007-2016 in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Tuberculosis
In this population was identified by record linkage between the national HSCT database
(REREME) and the São Paulo State Tuberculosis Control Program database.
Results Five tuberculosis cases(03 males) were identified and described among 1,223 allo-HSCT. The average age was 25 years, and the estimated time between HSCT and Tuberculosis diagnosis was 376 days. Density incidence rate and standardized incidence ratios(SIR) were compared between matched unrelated donor allo-HSCT and the Tuberculosis
database of the São Paulo state (172,925 cases). Considering 2,718 patients/year, the
density incidence rate in the allo-HSCT population was 183 cases/100.000 patients/year
(SIR:4.9 and 95% CI 1.8-11:), much higher than the average rate for the whole population
in the state of São Paulo for the same period: 38.8/100.000 inhabitants.
Conclusion; Allo-HSCT patients are highly vulnerable to tuberculosis disease, in our study
almost five times higher than in general population. Improving epidemiological data and a better surveillance system are essential in tackling this critical condition, especially in endemic countries.
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